Despite elegant demonstrations for the role of sex hormones in vascular health and immunoregulation
, the striking predominance of SLE, RA, and SS in females remains unexplained relative to other systemic diseases, such as antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), associated vasculitis, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome.
They cover history; general aspects; specialization; recruitment, inflammation, and repair; recognition, signaling, and gene expression; secretion and defense; immunoregulation
and infection; and metabolic and malignant disease.
sup] The lung is a complex microbial ecosystem, the microbiome is the collection of viable and nonviable microbiota (bacteria, viruses, and fungi) residing in the bronchial tree and parenchymal tissues, which may be important for health, such as colonization resistance, epithelial integrity, and immunoregulation
Abnormalities of B-cell activation and immunoregulation
in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation
at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of NIH, and Ivona Pandrea, M.
Fauci, who is also chief of the NIAID Laboratory of Immunoregulation
Microbial 'Old Friends', immunoregulation
and stress resilience.
, and inducible nitric oxide synthase.
Azithromycin can effectively restrain the adhesion of neutrophil to epithelial tissue, reduce the secretion of sputum, and inhibit inflammatory reaction by inducing the apoptosis of macrophage and neutrophil through immunoregulation
On the other hand, IL-10 acts in immunoregulation
and inflammation and has the capability to downregulate the expression of Th1 cells and inhibit the synthesis of various pro-inflammatory cytokines.
of skin sensitization and regulatory T cells.
Clear indications in the literature suggest that apoE plays a role in immunoregulation
and inflammatory disorders (1-3).