immune response


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Related to immune response: humoral immune response

immune

 [ĭ-mūn´]
1. being highly resistant to a disease because of the formation of humoral antibodies or the development of immunologically competent cells, or both, or as a result of some other mechanism, as interferon activities in viral infections.
2. characterized by the development of humoral antibodies or cellular immunity, or both, following antigenic challenge.
3. produced in response to antigenic challenge, as immune serum globulin.
immune response the reaction to and interaction with substances interpreted by the body as not-self, the result being humoral and cellular immunity. Called also immune reaction. The immune response depends on a functioning thymus and the conversion of stem cells to B and T lymphocytes. These lymphocytes contribute to antibody production, cellular immunity, and immunologic memory.
Disorders of the Immune Response. Pathologic conditions associated with an abnormal immune response (immunopathy) may result from (1) immunodepression, that is, an absent or deficient supply of the components of either humoral or cellular immunity, or both; (2) excessive production of gamma globulins; (3) overreaction to antigens of extrinsic origin, that is, antigens from outside the body; and (4) abnormal response of the body to its own cells and tissues.

Those conditions arising from immunosuppression include agammaglobulinemia (absence of gamma globulins) and hypogammaglobulinemia (a decrease of circulating antibodies). Factors that may cause or contribute to suppression of the immune response include (1) congenital absence of the thymus or of the stem cells that are precursors of B and T lymphocytes; (2) malnutrition, in which there is a deficiency of the specific nutrients essential to the life of antibody-synthesizing cells; (3) cancer, viral infections, and extensive burns, all of which overburden the immune response mechanisms and rapidly deplete the supply of antigen-specific antibody; (4) certain drugs, including alcohol and heroin, some antibiotics, antipsychotics, and the antineoplastics used in the treatment of cancer.

Overproduction of gamma globulins is manifested by an excessive proliferation of plasma cells (multiple myeloma). hypersensitivity is the result of an overreaction to substances entering the body. Examples of this kind of inappropriate immune response include hay fever, drug and food allergies, extrinsic asthma, serum sickness, and anaphylaxis.

Autoimmune diseases are manifestations of the body's abnormal response to and inability to tolerate its own cells and tissues. For reasons not yet fully understood, the body fails to interpret its own cells as self and, as it would with other foreign (not-self) substances, utilizes antibodies and immunologically competent cells to destroy and contain them.
immune system a complex system of cellular and molecular components whose primary function is distinguishing self from nonself and defense against foreign organisms or substances; see also immune response. The primary cellular components are lymphocytes and macrophages, and the primary molecular components are antibodies and lymphokines; granulocytes and the complement system are also involved in immune responses but are not always considered part of the immune system per se.
Major organs and tissues of the immune system in the child. From McKinney et al., 2000.
immune complex disease local or systemic disease caused by the formation of circulating antibody-antigen immune complexes and their deposition in tissue, due to activation of complement and to recruitment and activation of leukocytes in type III hypersensitivity reactions.

response

 [re-spons´]
any action or change of condition evoked by a stimulus.
acute phase response a group of physiologic processes occurring soon after the onset of infection, trauma, inflammatory processes, and some malignant conditions. The most prominent change is a dramatic increase of acute phase proteins in the serum, especially C-reactive protein. Also seen are fever, increased vascular permeability, and a variety of metabolic and pathologic changes.
anamnestic response the rapid reappearance of antibody in the blood following introduction of an antigen to which the subject had previously developed a primary immune response.
auditory brainstem response ABR; a special hearing test that tracks the nerve signals arising in the inner ear as they travel along the auditory nerve to the brain region responsible for hearing. A small speaker placed near the ear makes a clicking sound, and special electrodes record the nerve signal as it travels. The test can determine where along the nerve there is a lesion responsible for sensorineural hearing loss. It is often used for individuals with such loss in just one ear; this is often caused by a benign tumor along the auditory nerve, but if the ABR reading is normal in a given region, the chances of there being a tumor there are small. This test can also be used on infants since it requires no conscious response from the person being tested.
autoimmune response the immune response in which antibodies or immune lymphoid cells are produced against the body's own tissues. See also autoimmune disease.
conditioned response see conditioned response.
dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response a nursing diagnosis adopted by the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, defined as inability of a patient to adjust to lowered levels of mechanical ventilator support, which interrupts and prolongs the process of weaning. See also mechanical ventilatory weaning.
galvanic skin response the alteration in the electrical resistance of the skin associated with sympathetic nerve discharge.
immune response see immune response.
inflammatory response the various changes that tissue undergoes when it becomes inflamed; see inflammation.
post-trauma response former name for the nursing diagnosis post-trauma syndrome.
reticulocyte response increase in the formation of reticulocytes in response to a bone marrow stimulus.
triple response (of Lewis) a physiologic reaction of the skin to stroking with a blunt instrument: first a red line develops at the site of stroking, owing to the release of histamine or a histamine-like substance, then a flare develops around the red line, and lastly a wheal is formed as a result of local edema.
unconditioned response an unlearned response, i.e., one that occurs naturally, in contrast to a conditioned response.

im·mune re·sponse

1. any response of the immune system to an antigen including antibody production and/or cell-mediated immunity;
2. the response of the immune system to an antigen (immunogen) that leads to the condition of induced sensitivity; the immune response to the initial antigenic exposure (primary immune response) is detectable, as a rule, only after a lag period of from several days to 2 weeks; the immune response to a subsequent stimulus (secondary immune response) by the same antigen is more rapid than in the case of the primary immune response.

immune response

n.
An integrated bodily response to an antigen, especially one mediated by lymphocytes and involving recognition of antigens by specific antibodies or previously sensitized lymphocytes.

immune response

a defense function of the body that protects the body against invading pathogens, foreign tissues, and malignancies. It consists of the humoral immune response and the cell-mediated immune response. In the humoral immune response, B lymphocytes produce antibodies that react with specific antigens. The antigen-antibody reactions activate the complement cascade, which causes the lysis of cells bearing those antigens. The humoral response may begin immediately on invasion by an antigen or up to 48 hours later. In the cell-mediated immune response, T lymphocytes mobilize tissue macrophages in the presence of foreign antigens. Also called immune reaction. See also humoral immunity, immune system.

immune response

Immunology The constellation of responses of the immune system to foreign antigenic stimuli

im·mune re·sponse

(i-myūn' rĕ-spons')
1. Any response of the immune system to an antigen including antibody production or cell-mediated immunity.
2. The response of the immune system to an antigen (immunogen) that leads to the condition of induced sensitivity; the immune response to the initial antigenic exposure (primary immune response) is detectable, as a rule, only after a lag period of from several days to 2 weeks; the immune response to a subsequent stimulus (secondary immune response) by the same antigen is more rapid than in the case of the primary immune response.

immune response

an antagonistic and specific host reaction in response to foreign ANTIGENS, involving the formation of ANTIBODIES by B-CELLS (or a cell-mediated response by T-CELLS). When such antibodies are present in the body, the individual is said to possess IMMUNITY against the specific antigen that stimulated the antibody production. The immune response is a vital defence mechanism but creates severe problems with the transplant of organs, such as kidneys, from donors. In these cases the tissues are ‘matched’ for tissue compatibility and the recipient treated with chemicals that reduce the immune response.

Immune response

A response from the body to an antigen that occurs when the antigen is identified as foreign and that induces the production of antibodies and lymphocytes capable of destroying the antigen or making it harmless.

immune

1. being highly resistant to a disease because of the formation of humoral antibodies or the development of immunologically competent cells, or both, or as a result of some other mechanism, such as interferon activities in viral infections.
2. characterized by the development of antibodies or cellular immunity, or both, following exposure to antigen.
3. produced in response to antigen, such as immune serum globulin. The essential feature of antibody and cell-mediated immunity is that they are highly antigen specific.

immune adherence
the binding of antibody-antigen-complement complexes to complement receptors found on red blood cells.
immune complex
see antibody-antigen complex.
immune complex disease
disease induced by the deposition of or association with antigen-antibody-complement complexes in the microvasculature of tissues. Fixation of complement component C3 by the complexes initiates inflammation. See also serum sickness, hypersensitivity.
immune complex reaction
type III hypersensitivity (1).
immune deficiency disease
one in which animals have inadequate immune responses and so are more susceptible to infectious disease. The defect may be primary (inherited), or secondary (acquired) which usually develops after birth because of toxins or infectious agents. See also combined immune deficiency syndrome, hypogammaglobulinemia, agammaglobulinemia, inherited parakeratosis, chediak-higashi syndrome and canine granulocytopathy syndrome.
immune hemolysis
see immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (below).
immune interferon
immune modulator
immune reaction
immune response.
immune reaction fever
aseptic fever occurring in anaphylaxis, angioedema.
immune response
the specific response to substances interpreted by the body as not-self, the result being humoral and cellular immunity. The immune response depends on a functioning thymus and the conversion of stem cells to B and T lymphocytes. These B and T lymphocytes contribute to antibody production, cellular immunity and immunological memory. See also humoral immunity.
immune response (Ir) genes
see immune response genes.
immune surveillance
the detection by lymphocytes, especially T lymphocytes, of new antigens, particularly on tumor cells.
immune system
consists of the primary lymphoid organs (thymus and Bursa of Fabricius or its equivalent (bone marrow) in mammals) and secondary lymphoid organs (lymph nodes, spleen and other lymphoid tissue).
immune tolerance
see immunological tolerance.

response

any action or change of condition evoked by a stimulus.

autoimmune response
the immune response in which antibodies or immune lymphoid cells are produced against the body's own tissues.
conditioned response
see also conditioned response, conditioning.
dazzle response
shining a bright light in the eye causes a blink. Called also dazzle reflex.
galvanic skin response
the alteration in the electrical resistance of the skin associated with sympathetic nerve discharge.
immune response
specifically altered reactivity of the animal body after exposure to antigen, manifested as antibody-production, cell-mediated immunity, development of hypersensitivity, or as immunological tolerance. Called also immune reaction. See also immune response.
maze response
a test of vision for animals.
placing response
see placing reflex.
response rate
in surveys, the number of completed survey instruments (questionnaires, interview records) divided by the total number of persons approached.
response trial
a field trial conducted to test a hypothesis, often about the cause of a disease but can encompass therapeutics or control of a disease. The hypothesis is tested by observing the response to an alteration in the system, e.g. in feeding or in management.
triple response (of Lewis)
a physiological reaction of the skin to stroking with a blunt instrument: first a red line develops at the site of stroking, owing to the release of histamine or a histamine-like substance, then a flare develops around the red line, and lastly a wheal is formed as a result of local edema.
unconditioned response
an unlearned response, i.e. one that occurs naturally. See also conditioning.
References in periodicals archive ?
Actual results could vary materially from those expected due to a variety of risk factors, including whether the new vaccine candidate will be effective for the prevention or treatment of HIV or whether it will enter into clinical trials, whether The Immune Response Corporation will continue as a going concern and successfully raise proceeds from financing activities sufficient to fund operations and additional clinical trials of Remune, the uncertainty of successful completion of any such clinical trials, whether Remune will be effective as either a preventive or therapeutic vaccine, whether future trials will be conducted and whether the results of such trials will coincide with the results of Remune in preclinical trials.
Their immune responses were then followed as they were given B-6 at ever-increasing doses.
On this basis, therefore, it is clear that the effective development of allergic sensitization to food proteins will require the stimulation of a preferential type 2 immune response and the elaboration of specific IgE antibody.
Because researchers control exactly when a lab animal is infected with vires, they can easily study very early steps in a monkey's immune response.
Silvera, PhD, of the Southern Research Institute in Frederick, Maryland, showed that Remune when given with a fancy adjuvant called CpG causes uninfected monkeys to develop two key immune responses against HIV -- antibody and t-cell responses.
Since respiratory virus infection induces enlargement of the mediastinal lymph nodes early in the immune response and since these lymph nodes contain a relative small number of mCTL after initial exposure, a strong recruitment from circulating T cells occurs, or alternatively, clonal expansion of the resident mCTL takes place (39).
Assuming that we can choose our attitudes to some extent, look on the bright side and possibly enjoy a better immune response and less stress.
As recently reported, The Immune Response Corporation received clearance from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the release of its candidate product, Remune(TM), and with this clearance, permission to begin the large-scale Phase III clinical trial in the United States for the treatment of HIV infection.
This microbe acts as a trigger for the subsequent immune response.
Scientists call this first line of defense the innate immune response.
And after 8 weeks, all of the original virus was gone--showing the effect of the immune response.
13 /PRNewswire/ -- The Immune Response Corporation (Nasdaq: IMNR) announced today that it has received a notice of allowance from the European Patent Office and a patent from the Russian Patent Office regarding its core HIV technology.