hypotonic solution


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Related to hypotonic solution: Hypertonic solution

solution

 [so-loo´shun]
1. a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (solutes) dispersed molecularly in a sufficient quantity of dissolving medium (solvent).
2. in pharmacology, a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances, which are usually dissolved in water. For names of specific solutions, see under the name.
3. the process of dissolving or disrupting.
4. a loosening or separation.

Preparation of Solutions. Formula for preparing solutions from a pure drug:


For example, to prepare 2000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from boric acid crystals, the proportion would be

Formula for preparing solutions from stock solutions:

For example, to prepare 1000 mL of a 2 per cent solution from a 4 per cent stock solution, the proportion would be
aqueous solution one in which water is used as the solvent.
BCG solution an aqueous suspension of bacille Calmette-Guérin for instillation into the bladder to activate the immune system in treatment of superficial bladder cancers. It reduces the risk of a subsequent bladder cancer developing, although the exact mechanism of action is unknown.
buffer solution one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution (colloidal solution) imprecise term for colloid (def. 3).
hyperbaric solution one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
isobaric solution a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution a solution in which each liter contains 1 equivalent weight of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
saturated solution one in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution one containing an irritant substance (sclerosing agent) that will cause obliteration of a space, as in sclerotherapy.
standard solution one that contains in each liter a definitely stated amount of reagent; usually expressed in terms of normality (equivalent weights of solute per liter of solution) or molarity (moles of solute per liter of solution).
supersaturated solution an unstable solution containing more of the solute than it can permanently hold.
volumetric solution one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.

hypotonic solution

A solution having an osmotic pressure less than that of cells or body fluids; a solution that will cause water to enter cells, thus inducing swelling and possibly lysis.
See also: solution

sports drinks

commercially available drinks, designed for optimal delivery of water and carbohydrate during and after exercise. Water is often equally effective for hydration, but the taste of sports drinks makes them more likely to be taken in adequate quantities. The composition of commercial sports drinks is generally based on studies which have defined the content of carbohydrate (to supplement energy supply) and of electrolytes (mainly sodium salts) to promote fluid retention during and after prolonged exercise and to avoid hyponatraemia. There has, however, been some controversy about the standard recommendations, as some experts have disputed their adequacy in avoiding hyponatraemia, exemplified recently in studies of its occurrence in endurance athletes. Osmolality of these drinks varies according to the concentration of carbohydrate, most often in the form of glucose polymers. isotonic sports drinks contain glucose in a concentration of 6- 8% and are best for events such as middle- and long-distance running and team sports, rapidly replacing fluid lost by sweating as well as supplying an energy source. hypotonic sports drinks are suitable, for example, for jockeys, gymnasts and dancers, who need fluid but have less need for a carbohydrate top-up. hypertonic sports drinks have the most carbohydrate and are taken after exercise to supplement daily intake in the replacement of muscle glycogen stores; also used during very long-distance events when high levels of energy are required. See also hydration status.

solution

1. a liquid preparation of one or more soluble chemical substances usually dissolved in water.
2. the process of dissolving or disrupting.

aqueous solution
one in which water is used as the solvent.
buffer solution
one that resists appreciable change in its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) when acid or alkali is added to it.
colloid solution, colloidal solution
a preparation consisting of minute particles of matter suspended in a solvent.
hyperbaric solution
one having a greater specific gravity than a standard of reference.
hypertonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure greater than that of a standard of reference.
hypobaric solution
one having a specific gravity less than that of a standard of reference.
hypotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure less than that of a standard of reference.
iodine solution
a transparent, reddish brown liquid, each 100 ml of which contains 1.8 to 2.2 g of iodine and 2.1 to 2.6 g of sodium iodide; a local anti-infective.
iodine solution (strong)
Lugol's solution.
isobaric solution
a solution having the same specific gravity as a standard of reference.
isotonic solution
one having an osmotic pressure the same as that of a standard of reference.
molar solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 mole of the dissolved substance; designated 1 M. The concentration of other solutions may be expressed in relation to that of molar solutions as tenth-molar (0.1 M), etc.
normal solution
a solution each liter of which contains 1 chemical equivalent of the dissolved substance; designated 1 N.
ophthalmic solution
a sterile solution, free from foreign particles, for instillation into the eye.
physiological saline solution, physiological salt solution, physiological sodium chloride solution
an aqueous solution of sodium chloride and other components, having an osmotic pressure identical to that of blood serum.
priming solution
the fluid used to fill tubing and the reservoir of a cardiac bypass unit before use.
saline solution
a solution of sodium chloride, or common salt, in purified water.
saturated solution
a solution in which the solvent has taken up all of the dissolved substance that it can hold in solution.
sclerosing solution
one containing an irritant substance that will cause obliteration of a space, such as the lumen of a varicose vein or the cavity of a hernial sac.
standard solution
one containing a fixed amount of solute.
supersaturated solution
one containing a greater quantity of the solute than the solvent can hold in solution under ordinary conditions.
volumetric solution
one that contains a specific quantity of solvent per stated unit of volume.
References in periodicals archive ?
Teachers, as well as most textbooks, tell students that water will diffuse into a cell if it is placed in a hypotonic solution.
After the antimitotic treatment, the samples were subjected to 45 min in a hypotonic solution (50% sea water and distilled water).
In our experience, visual inspection under a microscope confirms that all erythrocytes are hemolyzed when whole blood is diluted 10-fold with an aqueous hypotonic solution (e.
However, in such situations it is possible to use a hypotonic solution of riboflavin that causes the cornea to swell, allowing CXL to proceed when the corneal thickness exceeds 400 microns.
In the present study, erythrocytes were selectively lysed in hypotonic solution followed by filtration through glass fiber filter membranes.
The AAGL's Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hysteroscopic Distending Media lists an intravasation safety limit of 2,500 cc for isotonic solution, compared with a maximum limit of 1,000 cc when using hypotonic solutions (J.
Fluids that should not be used in septic shock are 5% dextrose or hypotonic solutions, e.
We have found that hypotonic solutions (low in salt) strongly activate inflammation at molecular level.
The degrees of swelling and osmotic resistance in hypotonic solutions of erythrocyte from various domestic animals.
Four pediatric deaths due to acute hyponatremia associated with intravenous (IV) administration of hypotonic solutions, three in a postsurgical setting and the other in a medical setting were voluntarily reported (two to the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada [ISMP Canada] and two to the Institute for Safe Medication Practices [ISMP] in the United States).
Findings from a meta-analysis that included 6 randomized controlled trials indicated that hypotonic solutions (less than 0.
Maternal hydration with oral water or intravenous hypotonic solutions has been shown to increase amniotic fluid volume.