hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis


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hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA),

(hī'pō-thă-lam'ik-pi-tū'i-tār-ē-ad-rē'năl ak'sis),
major component of the stress system consisting of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary gland, and the adrenal cortices. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin secreted by PVN neurons into the hypophysial portal system stimulate pituitary cells to produce and secrete adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into the general circulation. ACTH then stimulates cortisol secretion by the adrenal glands.

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

the combined system of neuroendocrine units that in a negative feedback network regulate the adrenal gland's hormonal activities.

hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

A tightly-linked, interdependent endocrine unit which, with the systemic sympathetic and adrenomedullary systems, comprises a major peripheral limb of the stress system, the main function of which is to maintain basal and stress-related homeostasis; the hypothalamus and pituitary form the central part of the HPA axis, and are active even at rest, responding to blood-borne or neurosensory signals–eg, cytokines–eg, IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α; at the highest level, CRH and noradrenergic neurons innervate and stimulate each other, which is controlled by an autoregulatory, ultrashort negative-feedback loop, in which CRH and noradrenergic collateral fibers inhibit presynaptic CRH and α2-noradrenergic receptors. Cf Hypothalamic-pituitary axis.

hy·po·tha·lam·ic-pi·tu·i·ta·ry-a·dre·nal ax·is

(HPA axis) (hī'pō-thă-lam'ik-pi-tū'i-tar-ē ă-dre'năl ak'sis)
A major component of the stress response system, consisting of the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, cortex, and the cortex of the suprarenal gland. The HPA axis regulates secretion of cortisol from the suprarenal gland in response to stress.
References in periodicals archive ?
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pregnancy: challenges in disease detection and treatment.
Chronic anxiety could lead to excess activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sympathetic nervous system, which may increase the risk for stroke.
Although this study could not determine why childhood adversities are associated with poor depression outcomes, the researchers speculate that negative experiences may interrupt the normal development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which affects stress regulation.
Abnormalities in the functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis might offer insight into understanding psychosis in schizophrenia, a recent study showed.
10) Additionally, chronic stress, primarily by disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, encourages visceral fat accumulation.
They cover pituitary cell development and organization in adults, genetics, research topics, therapies, tumorigenesis, prolactinomas, growth hormone and acromegaly, the role of estrogens in the remodeling of the anterior pituitary gland, alcohol-induced hyperprolactinemia, gender differences in tumors, carcinomas, testing growth hormone deficiency in adults, imaging, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Cushing disease, and other topics.
Chronic exposure to stressors can indeed stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and induce a disbalance between anabolic and catabolic hormones, responsible of
The opposing direction of fecundity odds ratios provides evidence that the reduction in fecundity associated with alpha-amylase was mediated via the sympathetic nervous system rather than through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Dr.
In terms of heart rate, cortisol, metabolism and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, we're excessively awake.
The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) from chronic stress results in the increase in adrenal glucocorticoids with well documented inhibitory effects on the inflammatory process and in the inflammatory cytokines release.
We think increased boldness and lower corticosterone evolved in concert during colonization, which points to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as a critical integrating hormonal mechanism associated with adapting to urban life," Atwell surmises.

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