PWP suffer from vocal and speech impairments such as dysphonia, hypophonia
, monotone and dysarthria .
Some nurses are aware of the secondary motor manifestations: dysarthria, dysphagia, hypophonia
, micrographia, and the mask-like expression seen in some patients with Parkinson's disease.
General neurological examination showed difficulty in calculating, recent memory disturbance, hypophonia
, and slurred speech.
It has been reported that adverse effects occurred in 34%75% of the patients who were treated with BoNT-A, and the most common adverse effects were dysphagia, weakness in cervical muscles, hypophonia
, dry mouth, and atrophy of muscles (26,28).
Symptoms such as shuffling gait, loss of dexterity, festination, freezing of gait, hypophonia
and loss of articulation, and falls because of loss of postural reflexes.
is a symptom of PD, and at times it became difficult to hear participants and therefore direct the assessments across the Internet link.
It can include micrographia, hypomimia, hypophonia
as well as decreased blink rate.
During hospital day 1, the patient experienced hypophonia
, complete ophthalmoplegia, bilateral ptosis (right more than left), pupils unresponsive to light, dysphagia, and bilateral limb-girdle muscular weakness.
The Mn-exposed workers exhibited gait disturbance, a propensity to fall, masked face, hypophonia
and dysphonia, and drooling.
Table 2: Clinical Manifestations * Poverty of movement * Fatigue * Gait impairments * Mask-like facial expression * Dsyphagia * Dysarthria, hypophonia
, mutism * Autonomic nervous system dysfunction * Visual deficits * Mental status changes * Perceptual motor deficits * Sensory loss Sources: 1) O'Sullivan, S.
A 72-year-old with five-year history of progressive supranuclear palsy complained of symptoms including decreased leg strength, balance problems, trouble swallowing liquids, hypophonia
and unclear speech, and abnormal vertical gaze.
They include hypophonia
, reduced loudness, hoarseness, monotone, and mono-loudness (Aronson, 1990).