A chest radiograph showed new findings of pulmonary venous congestion and interstitial edema, suggestive of progressive heart failure or fluid overload, and an echocardiogram showed global hypokinesis
15) This inability to contract causes localized edema, dysfunction of the walls of the heart (called hypokinesis
, the hallmark of ischemic disease as seen on stress echoes and nuclear thallium stress tests), and eventually necrosis of the tissue, which we call an MI.
Transthoracic echocardiography showed hypokinesis
of the anterior wall with an ejection fraction of 48% and minimal pericardial effusion.
LV angiography demonstrated the characteristic morphology of apical ballooning with hyperkinesis of the basal segments and hypokinesis
of the mid-apical segments (Fig.
Depending on the size and location, lesions can result in valvular dysfunction, outflow tract obstruction, ventricular hypokinesis
, or arrhythmias.
CMRI short axis (SAX) (Figure 1), two-chamber (2CH) (Figure 2), three-chamber (3CH) (Figure 3), and four-chamber (4CH) (Figure 4) CINE imaging confirm global mild hypokinesis
with proximal apical-inferior wall thinning and akinesis, and mid- and basilar-inferior septum, inferior wall, and posterior-lateral wall myocardial thinning with mild hypokinesis
This showed that all bypass grafts were patent, but confirmed apical hypokinesis
(Figure 1B) consistent with a diagnosis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.
The cardiac catherization showed no evidence of obstructive coronary heart disease, increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and marked distal anterior and distal inferior wall hypokinesis
with apical dyskinesis.
An echocardiogram revealed functional tricuspid valvular regurgitation secondary to severe right ventricular dilation and hypokinesis
When compared with nondisabled persons, persons with SCI exhibited circulatory hypokinesis
, an approximately 68 percent reduction in cardiac output during maximal exercise .
42) evaluated the effects of ES of lower extremity muscles during standing on the hemodynamic response in persons with SCI and concluded that ES of the lower extremity could be used as an adjunct during standing to prevent orthostatic hypotension and circulatory hypokinesis
This cine display of the heart in near real time allows the observer to identify areas of hypokinesis
, akinesis, and dyskinesis.