Hypothalamic gray matter volume loss in hypnic
Previous studies have shown that patients with episodic migraine may present alterations in blink reflex, particularly regarding habituation to the stimulus, while TTH, cluster headache, cervicogenic headache and hypnic
headache all presented negative or controversial information on the blink reflex responses.
The study, which looked at a series of 40 patients, is the largest to date from a single institution and examined treatment of hypnic
headache, defined as a primary headache disorder characterized by onset during sleep that causes waking.
While this phenomenon happens to everyone, studies have recently begun to link occurrences of " hypnic
jerks" to sleep anxiety, fatigue, and discomfort.
Diagnosis is aided by differentiation between RLS and hypnic
jerks and between RLS and PLMs.
Relevance of sleep paralysis and hypnic
hallucinations to psychiatry.
Another type of primary headache, the hypnic
headache, has been reported specifically in the elderly and not in younger age groups.
A variety of headache disorders result in nocturnal headache: migraine, cluster headache, chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, and hypnic
When Amanda went to bed, she would immediately slip into the drowse and false peace of burgeoning sleep, only to feel her body jolt awake in a hypnic
Disorders That Can Cause Chronic Insomnia Primary sleep disorders Sleep apnea Nocturnal myoclonus Restless legs syndrome Hypnic
jerks Medical disorders Asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Coronary or pulmonary insufficiency Dementia Epilepsy Fibrositis Gastroesophageal reflux Hypertension Hyperthyroidism Parkinson's disease Peptic ulcer disease Nocturnal cardiac ischemia Psychiatric disorders Major depression Anxiety Panic disorder Obsessive-compulsive disorder Borderline personality disorder Post-traumatic stress syndrome Adjustment disorders Anorexia nervosa Dementia Alcohol and substance abuse Phobia Psychologic disorders Preexisting emotional problems Inadequate coping strategies Internalization of emotions Persistent hypochondria Obsessive worrying
He suffered from excessive startle responses and hypnic
jerks since the age of 5 years and had several spontaneous spasms and injuries because of frequent drop attack-like episodes, similar to his sister.
Also, in some cases, alcohol consumption occurs as an intention to self-improve certain mental symptoms such as anxiety, depression, psychosis, hypnic
disorders or stimulant side effects of certain medications (5).