Anomalous cognition in hypnagogic state
with OBE induction: An experimental study.
As Hishikawa (1976) pointed out, visual/auditory hallucinations are common in the hypnagogic state
, even in cases in which a person does not experience an OBE.
Hypnagogia: The nature and function of the hypnagogic state
Sleep-paralysis is also described, and Wiseman notes the similarity between accounts of experiences while in the hypnagogic state
and some of the phenomena that are interpreted as being due to ghosts, for example, hearing footsteps.
But what is just as interesting, as Murphy notes, is the importance Miles and Ramsden gave to the hypnagogic state
Some studies (Mavromatis, 1987; Sherwood, 1999) have demonstrated that apparitions often occur in states of consciousness in which mental images are experienced as particularly lifelike and "real"-for example, the hypnagogic state
(falling asleep) and hypnopompic state (waking up).
Our experiment was an attempt to enhance the hit score in the hypnagogic state
by eliminating all potential flaws and considering some new moderators not examined before.
Most research, both experimental and survey-based, seems to have focused on the hypnagogic state
(the period between wakefulness and sleep, i.
However, the underlying assumption that the ganzfeld really induces a true hypnagogic state
has not been adequately investigated to date.
As of writing this, an EEG study aimed at electrophysiological correlates of the ganzfeld and hypnagogic state
has been actually started in the Laboratory of Psychophysiology of the IGPP in Freiburg.
s (1971) use of multisensory targets in dream studies, Casler's (1976) study of monetary incentives and hypnosis, Palmer's (1978a) analyses of his own studies on the relationship between OBEs and ESP in terms of induction procedure and a hypnagogic state
scale, and Sargent's (1978) consideration of anxiety, extroversion, and feedback in hypnosis.
Domains Associated With Alterations of Consciousness Classified by Their Origin or Method of Induction (4) Origin Alteration Spontaneously States of drowsiness Daydreaming Hypnagogic states
Sleep and dreaming Physically and physiologically Extreme environmental conditions induced (pressure, temperature) Starvation and diet Sexual activity and orgasm Respiratory maneuvers Physiologically induced Sensory deprivation, homogenization, and overload Rhythm-induced trance (drumming and dancing) Relaxation Meditations Hypnosis Biofeedback Disease induced Psychotic disorders Coma and vegetative state Epilepsy Pharmacologically induced