Indeed, further investigations revealed that VDR knockout mice developed hyperreninemia
, hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and polyuria, and these abnormalities were independent of vitamin D's actions on calcium and skeletal homeostasis.
In the kidneys, injury to the medium-sized arteries can precipitate scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) with malignant hypertension and hyperreninemia
, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and rapidly progressive renal failure.
The vicious cycle of decreased blood flow, ischemia, hyperreninemia
, hypertension, and further vasoconstriction almost invariably led to a fatal outcome before the availability of ACE inhibitor therapy.
This results in a characteristic set of metabolic abnormalities, including: hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, hyperreninemia
, hyperaldosteronism hyperplasia of the juxtaglomerular apparatus, and, in some patients, hypomagnesemia.