Flexible instruments outperform rigid instruments to place anatomic anterior cruciate ligament femoral tunnels without hyperflexion
The consequent CCJ hyperextension/ hyperflexion
is the patho-mechanism resulting in antero-posterior dens subluxation.
The present report describes bilateral hyperflexion
of carpal joints in a 8 week old Great Dane pup due to contracture of flexor carpii ulnaris.
25) Forced hyperflexion
from entering the tackle with the head flexed may also result in a similar vertebral dislocation or fracture and subsequent catastrophic cervical injury.
In many cases of ulnar nerve palsies, the loss of primary thumb MCP flexion will lead to interphalangeal (IP) joint hyperflexion
(Froment's sign), sometimes combined with MCP hyperextension (Z-thumb).
Rotational/angular forces include hyperextension, hyperflexion
and hyperrotary forces.
2) Forced hyperflexion
or hyperextension in a stenotic canal causes additional narrowing and compression of the spinal cord by the pincers mechanism described by Penning.
Binet to conclude that, "because of the way [snowboarders] are moving and the forces that occur when they fall on the snow, there is substantially more hyperflexion
in the dorsal direction.
Whiplash refers to the injury that occurs to the neck from sudden hyperextension (bending neck backwards) followed by hyperflexion
of the neck (bending neck forwards).
Tennis-related back injury may be due to hyperflexion
or lack of flexibility in the hips.
O'Connell et al considered that trauma at the C4-5 or C5-6 level, which is more susceptible to hyperflexion
injuries during deceleration events such as automobile crashes, generates a process of fibrocartilaginous metaplasia, which in turn produces a pseudotumoral mass in this particular
6) Lumbar fractures or "chance fractures" are caused by hyperflexion
of the lumbar spine as the occupant jackknifes forward.