Table 1 Location of conjunctival hyperaemia
can indicate the cause Hyperaemia
location Possible causes Localised limbal Distress to neighbouring cornea, including infiltrative keratitis and contact lens-induced peripheral ulcer (CLPU) (13) Generalised limbal Hypoxia or solution reaction Temporal/nasal Exposure/dryness/inadequate blinking Palpebral Allergy and/or infection Generalised bulbar Allergy and/or infection Generalised bulbar Contact lens-induced red eye and limbal, with (CLARE), linked with overnight infiltrates, wear and gramnegative bacterial staining, severe contamination of contact discomfort lenses (14)
For example, high ICP associated with hyperaemia is typically associated with high Pbt[O.
8, may have different pathologies, including an extradural haematoma, subdural haematoma, cerebral ischaemia, cerebral hyperaemia, vasospasm, diffuse axonal injury, and/or focal haemorrhagic contusions.
The influence of local skin heating and reactive hyperaemia
on skin blood flow abnormalities in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD).
7,16) A recent study has found that both cold compresses and artificial tears produce significant improvement in ocular surface temperature, conjunctival hyperaemia and ocular symptoms, with efficacy enhanced further when these steps are combined.
Interestingly, artificial tears and cold compresses used alone or in combination have been found to be equally effective as epinastine in relieving conjunctival hyperaemia and reducing ocular surface temperature, although symptoms reduced more effectively with epinastine.
tivitis Occasionally corneal oedema, pseudodendrites, stromal infiltrates Angle closure Marked limbal hyperaemia
(ciliary injection), glaucoma fixed dilated pupil, corneal oedema, shallow anterior chamber angle, elevated intraocular pressure (40-80mmHg).
There was no statistically significant difference after 14 days of Blink-N-Clean eye drop use in the measurement of hyperaemia
(Wilcoxon matchedpairs signed-ranks tests, p=0.
0mm in diameter) and hyperaemia
on the superior palpebral conjunctiva (Figure 3), excessive contact lens movement and intolerance, increased mucous production and symptoms such as burning, itching and irritation.
It is usually considered that soft lens wearers tend to exhibit more limbal injection than RGP lens wearers, (7,44) but several studies have now shown a decrease in limbal hyperaemia
with the latest high Dk silicone hydrogel lenses, a direct correlation between oxygen permeability and physiological performance.
occurs more commonly with travoprost and bimatoprost than with latanoprost.
Prolonged irritation may result in tarsal conjunctival swelling, hyperaemia