hydrogenosome


Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

hydrogenosome

(hī-drō'jen'ō-sōm),
An ATP and hydrogen producing organelle in anaerobic eukaryocytes, including Trichomonas and Giardia, having a double membrane and thought by some to be a mitochondrial homologue.
References in periodicals archive ?
A hydrogenosome with pyruvate formatelyase: anaerobic chytrid fungi use an alternative route for pyruvate catabolism.
A hydrogenosome with pyruvate formate-lyase: anaerobic chytrid fungi use an alternative route for pyruvate catabolism.
Characterization of hydrogenosomes and their role in glucose metabolism of Neocallimastix sp.
Fungal hydrogenosomes contain mitochondrial heat-shock proteins.
Hydrogenosomes in the rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum.
While organelles called mitochondria power most eukaryotic cells, hydrogenosomes replace them in a few instances.
Since hydrogenosomes, as they generate energy, emit lots of hydrogen, as well as some carbon dioxide and acetate, the methanogens had stumbled upon a feast inside the cell.
The conjecture that resulted, dubbed the hydrogen hypothesis by Martin and Muller in the March 5 Nature, offers a novel explanation for the origin of both hydrogenosomes and mitochondria and may also shake up beliefs about the birth of eukaryotic cells.
At its most basic level, the hydrogen hypothesis contends that a host cell formed a symbiotic relationship with, and eventually engulfed, a bacterium that in some of the host's descendants gave rise to hydrogenosomes and in others to mitochondria.
In the 1970s, Muller and a coworker became the first to separate hydrogenosomes from other cellular contents, a step that enabled them to identify many of their biochemical properties.
While hydrogenosomes and mitochondria were both thought to stem from endosymbiosis, many investigators assumed they arose independently.
The research team may indeed have found multicelled creatures living in anoxic conditions, but the evidence for those creatures having hydrogenosomes still looks preliminary, cautions Johannes Hackstein of Radboud University Nijmegen in the Netherlands, who studies the organelles.