hydrogen bonding


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hydrogen bonding

the attractive force of compounds in which a hydrogen atom covalently linked to an electronegative element such as oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine has a large degree of positive character relative to the electronegative atom, thereby causing the compound to possess a large dipole and to associate strongly with other like molecules.

hydrogen

a chemical element, atomic number 1, atomic weight 1.00797, symbol H. See Table 6. It exists as the mass 1 isotope (protium, or light or ordinary hydrogen), mass 2 isotope (deuterium, heavy hydrogen), and mass 3 isotope (tritium).

hydrogen bonding
weak electrostatic attraction between one electronegative atom and the hydrogen atom covalently linked to a second electronegative atom.
hydrogen breath test
detects hydrogen production as a product of bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, an indicator of inflammatory bowel disease or carbohydrate malabsorption.
hydrogen cyanide
hydrocyanic acid.
heavy hydrogen
hydrogen having double the mass of ordinary hydrogen; deuterium.
hydrogen ion balance
hydrogen ion concentration
the degree of concentration of hydrogen ions (the acid element) in a solution. Its symbol is pH, and expresses the degree to which a solution is acidic or alkaline. The pH range extends from 0 to 14, pH 7 being neutral. A pH of less than 7 indicates acidity, above 7 indicates alkalinity. See also acid-base balance and ph.
hydrogen peroxide
H2O2, used in solution as an antibacterial agent. A 3% solution foams on touching skin or mucous membrane and appears to have a mechanical cleansing action.
hydrogen peroxide-based teat dips
hydrogen sulfide
an ill-smelling, colorless, poisonous gas, H2S; much used as a chemical reagent. Hydrogen sulfide is often present in gases from oil wells and from manure vats under slatted floor barns. Poisoning of cattle causes diarrhea, dehydration, dyspnea and death in convulsions. The feces are black and the breath smells of hydrogen sulfide. Called also hydrosulfuric acid. See also manure pit gas poisoning.
hydrogen swell
defective canned meat can. Can is distended due to production of hydrogen as a result of corrosion of the can surface.
References in periodicals archive ?
The variation tendency of the hydrogen bonding interactions is consistent with that of the fibers' tensile strength, indicating that the increase of intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions also makes a main contribution to improvement of the mechanical properties.
Consequently, the hydrogen bonding system in water could produce a thermal spectrum reporting a temperature which is 80-240 fold lower than the true temperature of the water system.
The interaction forces between ligand and protein was mainly via electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions.
The absorption position of the peak for first overtone of the OH stretching shows that the [beta]-yclodextrin has the strongest intra molecular hydrogen bonding between OH groups attached to neighbouring glucose units.
Recently, reversible polymer networks using low molecular-weight polymers functionalized with three imidazolidone groups and amine to form double hydrogen bonding dimers were illustrated by Toumilhac et al.
In terms of physical chemistry, hydrogen bonding can be interpreted using the theory of electronic partition, which includes the electrostatic potential term (U), the polarizability effect (P), the exchange spin terms (EX), and charge transfer quantities (Q).
In addition to hydrogen bonding to the obvious ammonium group of the bicyclic amine, the McBreen study has shown that binding between the aromatic hydrogens of the adsorbed aromatic substituent and the carbonyl oxygen also occurs.
Each large ring contains three or four different chemical groups, or stations, where the small rings are temporarily held in place by hydrogen bonding.
Brian Dickens (1966-present) Groups land II (particularly calcium) phosphates and carbonates, their hydrates, and related compounds, hydrogen bonding, water in crystal structures, epitaxy, low temperatures, impurities/mixed populations in crystalline sites, computer programming.
Migration of the silane is then directed strongly to the silica surface where it accumulates by association through hydrogen bonding.
This volume features a comprehensive treatment of transition metal (palladium, nickel, copper) catalyzed a-arylation of enolates derived from many common functional groups such as ketones, aldehydes, esters and nitriles (Prim, Marque, Gaucher, Campagne) including enantioselective variants; palladium catalyzed cyclization to form indoles (Cacchi, Fabrizi, Goggiamani) one of the most prevalent and important classes of heterocycles in natural products and pharmaceutical agents; and an overview of a newly developed dihydroxylation reaction of alkenes (Donohoe, Bataille, Innocenti) that uses hydrogen bonding interactions to direct the delivery of an osmium catalyst with high selectivity.
This suggests that any association between water or hydroxylic ligands with Cu(II) porphyrins can be expected to mainly involve hydrogen bonding to the nitrogens, rather than direct metal-oxygen coordination.