11] All patients met the criteria as follows: regular menstruation (25-32 days), no hormonotherapy
for at least 6 months, and histopathology confirmation.
Treatment includes a combination of surgery, hormonotherapy
, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy that may be effective for the cure of localized disease; but there is no effective treatment strategy for metastasis, thus prostate cancer remains painful and often incurable.
For example, luminal A cancers require hormonotherapy
whereas triple negative tumors respond better to chemotherapy (3).
The therapeutic approach to this type of cancer consists of local interventions (surgery and radiotherapy) and systemic interventions (chemotherapy, hormonotherapy
and biological therapy) and can be employed in an isolated or concomitant manner (Majewski, Lopes, Davoglio, & Leite, 2012).
0]), ER+/PgR+ (45-50%/60-65%), CerbB2+ <10%, Ki67+ 30-35%, invasive carcinoma NST affecting the right breast, diagnosed 3 years prior to presentation, for which she underwent a multimodality treatment comprising breast removal surgery and axillary dissection--(Madden's modified radical mastectomy), followed by radio-, chemo- and hormonotherapy
Interest of short hormonotherapy
(HT) associated with radiotherapy (RT) as salvage treatment for biological relapse (BR) after radical prostatectomy (RP): Results of the GETUG-AFU 16 phase III randomized trial--NCT00423475.
The incidence and the severity of the side effects associated with radiotherapy depend on dose, dose rate, the volume irradiated, the quality of radiation administered, age, gender, accompanying diseases, hormonotherapy
, anemia and collagen vascular diseases.
Complementary chemotherapy or radiotherapy was administered, sometimes with hormonotherapy
In contrast, adjuvant treatment was administered to 1658 patients, with chemotherapy alone in 515 (25%) and hormonotherapy
in 554 (26.
Patient and tumor characteristics Characteristics n (%) Number of patients 69 (100) Median age 52 (range: 29-76) Performance status (ECOG) 0 6 (8) 1 50 (73) 2 13 (19) Hormone receptor status Positive 34 (49) Negative 30 (44) Unknown 5 (7) c-erbB-2 Positive 3+ 23 (34) IHC 2+, FISH+ 5 (7) Negative IHC 0/1+ 27 (39) IHC 2+, FISH- 10 (14) Unknown 4 (6) p53 High expression ([greater than or equal to]10) 8 (12) Low expression (<10) 41 (59) Unknown 20 (29) Visceral metastasis Present 52 (75) Absent 17 (25) Prior adjuvant treatments Chemotherapy 52 (75) Hormonotherapy
31 (45) Radiotherapy 34 (49) ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; IHC, immunohistochemistry; FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridization.
was prescribed for 40,9 % of the patients.
In many cases, the grade determines the type of treatment: "grade-3" tumors require chemotherapy, while "grade-1" tumors are treated only with hormonotherapy