homocitrulline

homocitrulline

/ho·mo·cit·rul·line/ an irregular amino acid related to lysine.
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The greatest degree of imprecision was associated with those amino acids present at concentrations <10 [micro]mol/L including homocitrulline, sarcosine, and [gamma]-aminobutyrate.
5% (all) (all) (all) Amino acid, [micro]mol/L Phenylalanine (a) 54 51 30-97 Tyrosine 79 72 34-151 Isoleucine (a) 30 28 12-66 Leucine (a) 64 60 31-130 Valine (a) 100 95 46-224 Threonine 187 169 66-415 Serine (a) 249 234 130-472 Glycine (a) 350 329 182-637 Methionine 22 21 10-39 Glutamine (a) 495 489 238-808 Glutamate (a) 337 324 193-566 Citrulline (a) 13 12 5-23 Arginine 11 9 <1-36 Ornithine 48 45 19-105 Homocitrulline 1 1 <1-4 Alanine 201 188 104-394 Hydroxyproline 34 33 18-53 Proline (a) 159 155 94-245 Lysine 61 56 29-119 [beta]-Aminoisobutyrate 4 3 <1-16 [beta]-Alanine 8 8 4-15 Sarcosine 1 1 <1-4 [gamma]-Aminobutyrate 2 2 <1-4 Histidine 48 46 24-98 [alpha]-Amino-n-butyrate 18 17 3-39 Steroid 17-OH progesterone, nmol/L 2.
2] groups of lysine residues, generating homocitrulline ([epsilon]-N-C-lysine) [4].
Stanley Hazen, section head of Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation at the Cleveland Clinic, found that high blood levels of homocitrulline are a strong predictor of heart disease, especially in smokers, offering a possible mechanism linking smoking to atherosclerosis.
3 with dose) Erythropoietic Yes Yes activity Use Anaemia Rx-CKD Anaemia Rx-CKD AsialoEPO Carbamylated erythropoietin Molecular weight, kDa 30-34 40 N-linked 0 Carbamylation of oligosaccharide lysines in EPO-- chains homocitrulline residues Sialic acid residues <0.
Various CDPs are formed, among them [alpha]-carbamyl-amino acids (or [alpha]-carbamyl-proteins), when [alpha]-amino groups are involved, and [epsilon]-carbamyllysine, also called homocitrulline, when [epsilon]-amino groups are involved.
More recently, a method allowing the specific quantification of protein-bound homocitrulline has been developed (17).
2] groups of lysine residues, thus eliciting the formation of homocitrulline, which is the most characteristic carbamylation-derived product (CDP).
These methods make it possible to detect not only end products, such as AGEs or homocitrulline, but also intermediate products (e.
Protein carbamylation in serum can be assayed by a colorimetric method using diacetyl monoxime as a detector and homocitrulline as a calibrator (14).
4]]Tyrosine 242 [right arrow] 140 25 Homocitrulline 246 [right arrow] 127 26 C2 Carnitine 260 [right arrow] 85 27 C3 Carnitine 274 [right arrow] 85 28 Formiminoglutamate 287 [right arrow] 157 29 C4 Carnitine 288 [right arrow] 85 30 C5:1 Carnitine 300 [right arrow] 85 31 C5 Carnitine 302 [right arrow] 85 32 [[sup.
The scan functions used in series were as follows: (a) multiple reaction monitoring mode (mrm) scan of free carnitine (FC) using precursors of 103 Da (Pre 103), (b) mrm scan of C2 using precursors of 85 Da (Pre 85); (c) full scan of the remaining acylcarnitines using Pre 85; (d) full scan of amino acids using neutral loss of 102 (NL 102); and (e) mrm scan of basic amino acids using neutral loss of 119 (NL 119) for citrulline, homocitrulline, and ornithine or neutral loss of 161 (NL 161) for arginine.