Glucose metabolism and hexosamine
pathway regulate oncogene-induced senescence.
Mechanistically, both hyperglycemia and glycemic excursions result in oxidative stress, likely through overproducing superoxide by the mitochondrial electron-transfer chain (5, 6), which generates advanced glycation end products, activates protein kinase C and nuclear factor-[kappa]B, enhances polyol activity, and increases hexosamine
pathway flux (1, 7).
The amount of hexosamine
was determined by comparing with a standard curve.
This is followed by maturation which results in a complex network of cells embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix composed of carbohydrates, proteins, hexosamine
, phosphorus and uronic acid.
Wischmeyer, "Glutamine enhances heat shock protein 70 expression via increased hexosamine
biosynthetic pathway activity," American Journal of Physiology: Cell Physiology, vol.
The increased oxidative stress in patients with poorly controlled DM is predominantly due to hyperglycemia, which occurs through five metabolic pathways: (30) increased flux of glucose through the polyol pathway; (23) increased formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptors; (31) activation of protein kinase C isoforms- [beta], [delta], and [alpha]; (32) overactivity of hexosamine
pathways, (33) and a decrease of antioxidant defenses.
signaling pathway: O-GlcNAc cycling in feast or famine.
Spices have been reported to increase secretion of amylase and hexosamine
including ptyalin which facilitates digestion of starch in the stomach, hence, rendering diets which are rich in carbohydrates more digestible (20); ginger has also been reported to contain about 5.
HA contains a hexosamine
(N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) and uronic acid (D-glucuronic acid).
High dose thiamine and benfotiamine both have been found to reduce oxidative stress, PKC activation and hexosamine
levels and reducing the risk of diabetic vascular disease9.
Tissue damage resulting from hyperglycemia can be caused by four mechanisms: activation of the polyol pathway, activation of the hexosamine
pathway, activation of protein kinase C, and formation of advanced glycation end -products (3,8,42).
Assessment of granulation tissue on every fourth day showed significant reduction in bacterial count with significant level of collagen, hexosamine
, uronic acid, and superoxide dismutase in the treated group (P Less than 0.