Beyond Bahia's stated reasons for creating her heteronyms
, this essay aims to contextualize Bahia's project in a line of continued, and still needed, challenges to the ongoing hegemonic masculinity of the art world.
Hamburger suggested that the heteronyms
were 'Pessoa's way of coping with the conflicts and tensions common to the poets of his time [and] were assumed out of the conviction that "poetry is more true than the poet"', adding that in Campos's 'Tabacaria', Pessoa 'anticipates not only existentialism but the nouveau roman and playwrights like Ionesco, by an identification of the poet with the tobacconist that effects a total break with Romantic--Symbolist conceptions of the poet' (London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson; New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1969, pp.
He juxtaposes a chapter exploring the concept of otherness in Machado with one that reads some of the better-known writings of Pessoa's heteronyms
8) Benedetti says of this epigraph by Gelman's heteronym
Jose Galvan: " [.
Monteiro begins Fernando Pessoa and Nineteenth-Century Anglo-American Literature with a chronology and introduction that are equally useful for placing the emergence of the major heteronyms
in the context of the poet's life.
are distinct and self-sufficient individuals, poet-characters invented down to the most minute detail, biography, somatic features, aesthetic preferences, cultural background and even idiosyncracies.
Alvaro de Campos, last of the heteronym
trilogy, described by
Alma Rubens, the feminine heteronym
of Jose Manuel Poveda (1888-1926), has been recognized as an important voice in twentieth-century Cuban poetry.
By writing 'The Education of the Stoic' under the heteronym
of the Baron of Teive, Pessoa used a semi-autobiographical character--whom he would later define as a 'mere mutilation' of his personality--to issue a suicide note and finally to commit suicide on his behalf.
Written in 1900, and now translated by Gregory Rabassa, the reader will here discover a playful heteronym
of the great realist, smitten by (or mocking) the stylistic bravado of the French Symbolists, their precursors, and their followers: Hugo, Leconte de Lisle, Baudelaire, Coppee, Mallarme, et al.
Pessoa, through his heteronym
Alvaro de Campos, expounds on this concept in the following excerpt from a 1935(?
Pessoa was introduced at the beginning of the chapter, marked by a jagged flashback to an initial thematization of melancholy: "La Saudade, diceva Maria do Carmo, non e una parola, e una categoria dello spirito, solo i portoghesi riescono a sentirla, perche hanno questa parola per dire che ce l'hanno, lo ha detto un grande poeta" (12); then she leads the narrator between the haunts of one heteronym
and another, before launching into her childhood reminiscences.