herd


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herd

(hĕrd),
A group of people or animals in a given area.
[O.E. heord]

herd

(hĕrd)
A group of people or animals in a given area.
[O.E. heord]

herd

[AS. heord]
Any large aggregation of people or animals.

herd

a group of animals, usually cattle, or pigs, or related wild animal species, which live a collective life together. This may be a natural pattern of behavior or be imposed by a human operated management system.

herd abnormality
an abnormality detectable only by examination of epidemiological data, e.g. milk yield per hectare, conception rate to first service.
herd composition
includes bulls (where applicable), cows in milk, dry cows, heifers not yet calved, bred heifers, virgin heifers, yearlings, calves weaned and suckers or at foot. Called also herd structure.
herd diagnosis
a diagnosis made to fit a herd problem which may be, for example, a low reproduction rate, or wool yield, or win rate at the races.
dairy herd
herd used exclusively for milk production.
herd epidemic
an epidemic confined to one herd.
herd fertility control scheme
programs based on surveillance of all reproduction data and comparison of indexes with preset targets. Correction of inefficiencies may be implemented by the farmer but diagnosis of the cause and treatments and prophylaxes are largely the province of the veterinarian.
herd health program
a health management system based on periodic visits to the herd by a veterinarian to check the status of a series of identifiable health parameters including production, reproductive efficiency, mastitis prevalence, calf survival, cow culling and mortality rate, fecal egg counts. Superior programs also include production management so that genetics, nutrition, housing, disease control and financial management are coordinated in a wholefarm approach.
herd immunity
a level of resistance in a herd or flock which is sufficient to prevent the entry of a particular disease into, or its spread within, the herd. The resistance may be innate, a genetically based resistance, or acquired as a result of previous exposure to the particular agent or of vaccination. The general usage of the term relates to the prevention of spread of infection at an epidemic level. So that in a herd in which there are 70 to 80% of immune animals there may be sporadic cases but the prevalence is unlikely to be significant. The same comments apply to larger populations, e.g. a wild animal or companion animal population which is really not managed as a herd.
herd level test
test performed on the entire herd or an adequate sample of it.
rolling herd average (RHA)
the average milk production per herd per year based on the 12 months just finished. Upon completion of a new test record, usually at monthly intervals, the record for the same period of the previous year is deducted and the new record is added, then a new rolling 365-day average is calculated. RHSs are updated with each new test. See also moving average.
herd sampling
examination, either physical or clinical pathological, of a herd to determine the herd status in a particular epidemiological parameter.
herd size
a critical factor in planning for productivity efficiency. May be quoted as the number of animals of a particular age or stage of production, e.g. milking cows, assuming that other, usually young, stock are also carried on the farm.
herd structure
see herd composition (above).
herd udder health
status of the herd with respect to the prevalence of quarter infection, clinical mastitis, teat lesions.
References in classic literature ?
us strode hastily down the forest glade, driving before him, with the assistance of Fangs, the whole herd of his inharmonious charge.
The other herd children, watching with the cattle half a mile away, hurried to the village as fast as their legs could carry them, crying that the buffaloes had gone mad and run away.
The bull lowered his trunk and the herd resumed their interrupted meditations.
A strange purring sound issued from the mouth in the palm of one of his hands, and at the same time he started rapidly toward the bluff, followed by the entire herd.
Presently we caught sight of the herd, which numbered, as Ventvogel had said, between twenty and thirty, standing in a hollow, having finished their morning meal, and flapping their great ears.
If the animals leading the herd change, this happens because the collective will of all the animals is transferred from one leader to another, according to whether the animal is or is not leading them in the direction selected by the whole herd.
A herd of buffalo, startled by his approach, rose ready to charge or to fly.
At the eastern end of the city he turned toward the south, continuing his way to the south side of the wall along which were the pens and corrals where the herbivorous flocks were fattened for the herds of domesticated lions within the city.
At length they found the well-marked trail along which the herd had passed not many hours before.
Next from the fields and pastures great herds of sheep were brought.
Frequently, when passing at the distance of half a mile to leeward of a herd, I have perceived the whole air tainted with the effluvium.
One diversion of his, when we were in the midst of the herd and the sea was too rough to lower the boats, was to lower with two boat- pullers and a steerer and go out himself.