herd


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herd

(hĕrd),
A group of people or animals in a given area.
[O.E. heord]

herd

(hĕrd)
A group of people or animals in a given area.
[O.E. heord]

herd

[AS. heord]
Any large aggregation of people or animals.

herd

a group of animals, usually cattle, or pigs, or related wild animal species, which live a collective life together. This may be a natural pattern of behavior or be imposed by a human operated management system.

herd abnormality
an abnormality detectable only by examination of epidemiological data, e.g. milk yield per hectare, conception rate to first service.
herd composition
includes bulls (where applicable), cows in milk, dry cows, heifers not yet calved, bred heifers, virgin heifers, yearlings, calves weaned and suckers or at foot. Called also herd structure.
herd diagnosis
a diagnosis made to fit a herd problem which may be, for example, a low reproduction rate, or wool yield, or win rate at the races.
dairy herd
herd used exclusively for milk production.
herd epidemic
an epidemic confined to one herd.
herd fertility control scheme
programs based on surveillance of all reproduction data and comparison of indexes with preset targets. Correction of inefficiencies may be implemented by the farmer but diagnosis of the cause and treatments and prophylaxes are largely the province of the veterinarian.
herd health program
a health management system based on periodic visits to the herd by a veterinarian to check the status of a series of identifiable health parameters including production, reproductive efficiency, mastitis prevalence, calf survival, cow culling and mortality rate, fecal egg counts. Superior programs also include production management so that genetics, nutrition, housing, disease control and financial management are coordinated in a wholefarm approach.
herd immunity
a level of resistance in a herd or flock which is sufficient to prevent the entry of a particular disease into, or its spread within, the herd. The resistance may be innate, a genetically based resistance, or acquired as a result of previous exposure to the particular agent or of vaccination. The general usage of the term relates to the prevention of spread of infection at an epidemic level. So that in a herd in which there are 70 to 80% of immune animals there may be sporadic cases but the prevalence is unlikely to be significant. The same comments apply to larger populations, e.g. a wild animal or companion animal population which is really not managed as a herd.
herd level test
test performed on the entire herd or an adequate sample of it.
rolling herd average (RHA)
the average milk production per herd per year based on the 12 months just finished. Upon completion of a new test record, usually at monthly intervals, the record for the same period of the previous year is deducted and the new record is added, then a new rolling 365-day average is calculated. RHSs are updated with each new test. See also moving average.
herd sampling
examination, either physical or clinical pathological, of a herd to determine the herd status in a particular epidemiological parameter.
herd size
a critical factor in planning for productivity efficiency. May be quoted as the number of animals of a particular age or stage of production, e.g. milking cows, assuming that other, usually young, stock are also carried on the farm.
herd structure
see herd composition (above).
herd udder health
status of the herd with respect to the prevalence of quarter infection, clinical mastitis, teat lesions.
References in classic literature ?
At last Mowgli rounded up the bewildered herd at the head of the ravine on a grassy patch that sloped steeply down to the ravine itself.
It seemed as if each beast strove to outstrip his neighbour, in gaining this desired cover; and as thousands in the rear pressed blindly on those in front, there was the appearance of an imminent risk that the leaders of the herd would be precipitated on the concealed party, in which case the destruction of every one of them was certain.
And we will keep the herd of cattle free for our own use--and the King's.
us strode hastily down the forest glade, driving before him, with the assistance of Fangs, the whole herd of his inharmonious charge.
As I topped a great boulder I saw the herd of plant men surrounding a little group of perhaps five or six green men and women of Barsoom.
For awhile we debated whether to go after the wounded bull or to follow the herd, and finally deciding for the latter alternative, departed, thinking that we had seen the last of those big tusks.
It's taken me long enough to build up that herd, but a few weeks from now they'll be scattered to the four winds.
All he could do for the present was to urge them to haste, and at his suggestion the king baboon with a dozen of his mightiest bulls agreed to go to the hill country with Korak, leaving the balance of the herd behind.
I felt myself a match for the most ferocious bull in the herd, and I know, had such a bull charged upon me, that I should have met it unflinchingly and quite coolly, and I know that I should have killed it.
This favourite is hated by the whole herd, and therefore, to protect himself, keeps always near the person of his leader.
Her mate hesitated for an instant, as though about to rush to her assistance; but a backward glance revealed to him the flying heels of the balance of the herd, and with a snort and a shake of his head he wheeled and dashed away.
Stokes told me, that he one day saw through a glass a herd of these animals which evidently had been frightened, and were running away at full speed, although their distance was so great that he could not distinguish them with his naked eye.