retinopathy(redirected from hemorrhagic retinopathy)
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In proliferative diabetic retinopathy new blood vessels form near the optic disk, break through the inner membranous lining, and grow on the vitreous chamber and elsewhere in the retina and may rupture, causing gross vitreous hemorrhage. Additionally, fibrous tissue is generated secondary to the new blood vessel formation, and both the fibrous tissue and the new blood vessels become firmly attached to the posterior vitreous face. As the vitreous humor moves, the blood vessels and fibrous tissue cause tractional pulling on the retina and may result in separation or detachment of areas of retina. Panretinal laser photocoagulation is the definitive therapy. The study of early treatment for diabetic retinopathy proved the efficacy of this procedure in causing regression of the new blood vessels and prevention of vitreous hemorrhage and tractional retinal detachments, the two major causes of vision loss from this form of the disease.
retinopathy/ret·i·nop·a·thy/ (ret″ĭ-nop´ah-the) any noninflammatory disease of the retina.
retinopathyA disorder that affects the retina. See Central serous retinopathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Hypertensive retinopathy, Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy, Retinitis, Retinopathy of prematurity.
retinopathyAny non-inflammatory disease of the RETINA. Retinopathies include CENTRAL SEROUS RETINOPATHY, DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, HYPERTENSIVE RETINOPATHY, retinopathy of prematurity (see RETROLENTAL FIBROPLASIA), RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA and retinopathy caused by drugs such as CHLOROQUINE and ETHAMBUTOL.
retinopathynon-inflammatory retinal disease
background retinopathy increased capillary permeability, dilatation of retinal veins, microaneurysms which may involve the macula, haemorrhages which may extend into the vitreous humour of the eye and hard exudates (white/yellow lipid particles) around leaky capillaries; a presentation of diabetic retinopathy; may cause blindness
diabetic retinopathy retinal microvascular disease (e.g. punctate haemorrhages, microaneurysms, neovascularization, waxy exudates); characteristic of diabetic eye disease
proliferative retinopathy new retinal vessel formation often near the optic disc in response to capillary non-perfusion, venous irregularity, cluster haemorrhages and cotton wool spots in diabetic eye disease; vitreous haemorrhages cause sudden blindness; local fibrosis causes retinal detachment; treated by laser photocoagulation (destroys new retinal vessels, to prevent consequences of proliferative retinopathy)
arteriosclerotic retinopathy See arteriosclerosis.
background diabetic retinopathy A progressive microangiopathy of the retinal vessels occurring in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. It is characterized by microaneurysms, dot-blot haemorrhages, flame-shaped haemorrhages, hard exudates and retinal oedema. Retinal veins may also become dilated and tortuous. If the microvascular occlusion progresses there will be signs of ischaemia and multiple cotton-wool spots will appear, as well as more venous changes and maculopathy, producing the clinical picture of preproliferative diabetic retinopathy. If the macular oedema is not clinically significant the patient remains asymptomatic. Syn. non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR).
central serous retinopathy (CSR) An accumulation of serous fluid in the subretinal space, which leads to a retinal detachment. It usually occurs in the central area of the retina and results in a sudden blurring and/or distortion of vision. The condition typically affects stressed men between the ages of 20 and 45 years. It subsides by itself within a few months in most cases; otherwise photocoagulation may be necessary. Syn. central serous chorioretinopathy.
diabetic retinopathy (DR) Retinal changes occurring in long standing cases of diabetes mellitus. It is the most common retinal vascular disease. In general, the severity of the retinopathy parallels the duration of the diabetes. The retinopathy is characterized by the presence of new blood vessels (neovascularization), which proliferate on or near the optic disc on the surface of the retina, microaneurysms (small round red spots) and sharply defined white or yellowish waxy exudates. Vitreous detachment is a likely outcome. If the vessels bleed, there can be a preretinal haemorrhage with visual loss. Both eyes are usually involved although to different degrees. Visual acuity may be unaffected unless the fovea is involved. After the condition has reached the stage of proliferative retinopathy, the principal treatment is with laser photocoagulation, which reduces the risk of further visual loss. Other treatments include intravitreal injections of a cortico-steroid (e.g. triamcinolone) or of an anti-VEGF drug such as bevacizumab or ranibizumab. Low vision aids may be needed afterward. Syn. diabetic retinitis; proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). See fluorescein angiography; diabetes; diabetic maculopathy; microaneurysm; proliferative retinopathy.
haemorrhagic retinopathy See retinal vein occlusion.
hypertensive retinopathy Retinal changes occurring as a result of systemic hypertension (essential hypertension). Most cases are chronic but in a very small percentage of patients it is acute (malignant hypertension). The condition is characterized by local and/or generalized narrowing of the arterioles, changes at arteriovenous crossings (Salus' sign) and 'copper-wire' arteriolar light reflex (grades 1 and 2). As the condition progresses, flame-shaped haemorrhages, cotton-wool exudates, oedema and changes at arteriovenous crossings (Gunn's crossing sign) appear (grade 3) and at the most advanced stage (grade 4) the arteriolar reflex becomes 'silver-wire' and papilloedema occurs. Patients are usually asymptomatic. Malignant hypertension (accelerated hypertension), which is typically found in young patients, is more damaging with involvement of the choroidal arteries (hypertensive choroidopathy), along with Elschnig's spots and Siegrist's streaks, optic neuropathy and exudative retinal detachment. Note: the grading of hypertensive retinopathy is the Keith-Wagener-Barker classification. See arteriosclerosis; exudate; hypertension; macular star; sphygmomanometer.
non-proliferative retinopathy See background diabetic retinopathy.
pigmentary retinopathy A term commonly used as a synonym of retinitis pigmentosa.
retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) A bilateral ret-inal disease which commonly affects premature infants exposed to high ambient oxygen concentrations. It is characterized by proliferation and tortuosity of blood vessels, usually with haemorrhages and retinal detachment accompanied by an accumulation of fibrous tissue on the surface of the retina. Some of the infants may develop cicatricial complications, which may be innocuous or may progress to cover the central region of the retina and cause blindness. Other complications may be myopia or glaucoma. This condition is less common now-adays. Syn. retrolental fibroplasias (RLF). See leukocoria.
proliferative retinopathy Neovascularization of the retina extending into the vitreous with connective tissue proliferation surrounding the vessels. The vessels usually arise from a retinal vein near an arteriovenous crossing at the posterior pole and from the surface of the optic disc. It occurs as a result of certain inflammatory conditions and in diabetes. Visual acuity may be affected. Syn. retinitis proliferans. See preretinal macular fibrosis; diabetic retinopathy; vitrectomy.
solar retinopathy Macular damage caused by fixating the sun without adequate protection, usually viewing a solar eclipse, but also in people staring at the sun as part of sun worship or psychosis. The retina presents at first with retinal oedema, which may develop into an atrophy of the tissue and produce a circumscribed hole or cyst in the fovea. This latter event results in a permanent central scotoma. There is no specific treatment but the condition can be prevented by wearing very dense light filters or viewing through photographic films. Syn. eclipse retinopathy; foveomacular retinitis; solar retinitis. See actinic; macular hole.
toxaemic retinopathy of pregnancy Sudden angiospasm of retinal arterioles, later followed by the typical picture of advanced hypertensive retinopathy. Restitution follows rapidly after the pregnancy has reached full term.
venous-stasis retinopathy See retinal vein occlusion.