hemorrhagic cystitis


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cystitis

 [sis-ti´tis]
inflammation of the urinary bladder; it may result from an ascending infection coming from the exterior of the body by way of the urethra, or from an infection descending from the kidney. A simple cystitis that does not involve the rest of the urinary tract is not as serious as the descending type in which the kidneys and ureters as well as the bladder are involved. Often cystitis is not an isolated infection but is a result of some other physical condition, such as urinary retention, calculi in the bladder, tumors, or neurologic diseases that impair normal bladder function.

Prevention of recurrent cystitis in females that is not attributable to abnormal structures or other factors mentioned previously may be achieved by good personal hygiene and the following measures: (1) always wipe the anal region from front to back after a bowel movement; (2) avoid wearing nylon pantyhose, tight slacks, or any clothing that traps perineal moisture and prevents evaporation; (3) do not wash underclothing in strong soap, and rinse underclothing well; (4) do not use bubble bath, perfumed soap, feminine hygiene sprays, or products containing hexachlorophene; (5) avoid prolonged bicycling, motorcycling, horseback riding, and traveling involving prolonged sitting, which can contribute to irritation of the urethral meatus and to development of an ascending cystitis; and (6) do not ignore vaginal discharge or other signs of vaginal infection.
Symptoms and Treatment. The most common symptoms of cystitis are dysuria, frequency and urgency of urination, and in some cases hematuria. Chills and fever indicate involvement of the entire urinary tract and are not symptomatic of uncomplicated cystitis. Treatment of acute cystitis consists of antimicrobials, forcing of fluids, and bed rest. Hot sitz baths give some relief of the discomfort, and spasms of the bladder wall may respond to an antispasmodic drug such as hyoscyamine. Chronic cystitis is more difficult to cure and may require surgical dilatation of the urethra to facilitate drainage of urine. In many cases removal of the underlying cause, such as chronic vaginal infection, relieves the cystitis.
cystitis col´li inflammation of the bladder and bladder neck.
hemorrhagic cystitis cystitis with severe hemorrhage, a dose-limiting toxic condition with administration of ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide, or a complication of bone marrow transplantation.
interstitial cystitis a type seen mainly in women, with the inflammatory lesion a small patch of red to brown mucosa surrounded by a network of radiating vessels, usually in the vertex and involving the entire thickness of the wall. The lesions are known as Hunner's ulcers and often heal superficially so that they are difficult to detect.
radiation cystitis inflammatory changes in the urinary bladder caused by ionizing radiation; called also radiocystitis.

hem·or·rhag·ic cys·ti·tis

bladder inflammation with macroscopic hematuria. Generally the result of a chemical or other traumatic insult to the bladder (chemotherapy, radiation therapy).

hemorrhagic cystitis

bladder inflammation with a large amount of blood in the urine secondary to chemotherapy, radiation, mechanical trauma, or passage of a kidney stone.

hem·or·rhag·ic cys·ti·tis

(hem'ŏr-aj'ik sis-tī'tis)
Bladder inflammation with macroscopic hematuria. Generally the result of a chemical or other traumatic insult to the bladder (chemotherapy, radiation therapy).
Synonym(s): haemorrhagic cystitis.

cystitis

inflammation of the urinary bladder. The condition may result from an ascending infection coming from the exterior of the body by way of the urethra, or it may be caused by an infection descending from the kidney. Often cystitis is not an isolated infection but is rather a result of some other physical condition. For example, urinary retention, calculi in the bladder, tumors, or neurological diseases impairing the normal function of the bladder may lead to cystitis.
Clinical signs include freqency, pain on urination, blood-stained urine, a thickened bladder wall. Significant clinical pathology findings include hematuria, a high cell count indicative of inflammation, and a positive bacterial culture.

cystitis cystica
cystitis marked by the presence of submucosal cysts.
emphysematous cystitis
an occasional complication of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats, caused by gas-forming bacteria.
epizootic equine cystitis
an Australian disease of horses similar to Sorghum spp. poisoning.
gangrenous cystitis
results from severe inflammation and ischemia; the bladder wall is green to black.
cystitis glandularis
mucin-secreting glands present in the mucosa in a case of cystitis.
hemorrhagic cystitis
hemorrhage is the main clinical feature.
interstitial cystitis
a lower urinary tract disease of women in which there is painful urination and hemorrhagic lesions in the bladder wall, but no cause can be diagnosed. A similar syndrome is believed to occur in cats.
polypoid cystitis
the mucosa is folded with polypoid projections.
References in periodicals archive ?
25) Notably, the presentation of hemorrhagic cystitis may vary from mild, self-limited gross hematuria to refractory, life-threatening hemorrhage with clot retention requiring blood transfusion and emergent surgical or radiological intervention.
Treatment of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis with laparoscopic cystoprostatectomy.
Incidence and treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis in children given hematopoi-etic stem cell transplantation: a survey from the Italian association of pediatric hematology oncology-bone marrow transplantation group.
BK DNA viral load in plasma: evidence for an association with hemorrhagic cystitis in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
Hemorrhagic cystitis in pediatric bone marrow transplant patients: an association with infective agents, GvHD and prior cyclophosphamide.
The severity of hemorrhagic cystitis was evaluated based on some parameters such as congestion, edema, submucosal hemorrhagia and severe inflammation in the representative area by pathologists who had no information on the experimental group.
4] This viral infection may also be associated with ureteric stenosis and hemorrhagic cystitis.
Importantly, there were no reported events of encephalopathy, hemorrhagic cystitis or renal toxicity often associated with some current treatments for STS.
The patient's course was complicated by graft-versus-host disease, recurrent hypotension, hemorrhagic cystitis, and nonoliguric renal failure requiring femoral venous dialysis.
In a phase I clinical study, there was little bone marrow toxicity and no hemorrhagic cystitis (bladder toxicity) or central nervous system (CNS) toxicity (confusion).
The expert panel also assessed the safety profile of STR and specifically evaluated the delayed toxicity -- hemorrhagic cystitis and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) with renal impairment, and identified strategies for their management.

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