The contact of bats with humans and domestic animals are either direct or indirect, for example through many hematophagus
arthropods such as mosquitos, ticks (Pavlovsky, 1996) and cone-nosed bugs (Albuquerque and Barreto, 1968) feeds on bats, domestic animals and man.
The parasite is a highly pathogenic hematophagus
The interval between two consecutive births observed in this species is longer than that observed in frugivorous bat Artibeus jamaicensis Leach, 1821 (122 days, Taft and Handley, 1991; Ortega and Castro-Arellano, 2001) and shorter than that observed in the hematophagus
bats Desmodus rotundus (E.
Louse flies, common avian hematophagus
parasites, may play a role in transmitting WNV; however, this role requires further examination.
The other two species of hematophagus bats were rare, with Diphylla ecaudata Spix, 1823 represented by two individuals in one locality and Diaemus youngi (Jentink, 1893) with three individuals in three localities.
Even in forest remnants inside urban areas, densities moderate to high (3-4%) of these hematophagus bats can be achieved (Esberard, 2003).