hematoma


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hematoma

 [he″mah-to´mah]
A localized collection of extravasated blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue; contusions (bruises) and black eyes are familiar forms that are seldom serious. Hematomas can occur almost anywhere on the body; they are almost always present with a fracture and are especially serious when they occur inside the skull, where they may produce local pressure on the brain. In minor injuries the blood is absorbed unless infection develops.
Cranial Hematoma. The two most common kinds of cranial hematomas are epidural and subdural (dural refers to the dura mater). Epidural hematoma occurs between the dura mater and the skull. It is most often caused by a heavy blow to the head that damages the upper surface of the dura mater. Blood seeps into the surrounding tissue, forming a tumorlike mass or hematoma. Since the skull is rigid, the hematoma presses inward against the brain; if the pressure continues, the brain can be affected. An epidural hematoma is the result of rupture of a relatively large meningeal artery, so that there is a rapid leakage of blood, causing increased intracranial pressure that can be fatal in a short period of time.

A subdural hematoma occurs beneath the dura mater, between the tough casing and the more delicate membranes covering the tissue of the brain, the pia-arachnoid. This kind of injury is more often caused by the head striking an immovable object, such as the floor, than by a blow from a moving object. There may be no severe head injury or fracture. A blow to the head can cause the brain to move violently, tearing blood vessels and forming a swelling that may include fluid from the brain tissue. A chronic subdural hematoma may remain and increase in size. (See also head injury.)
Symptoms. The most common symptoms of epidural hematoma occur within a few hours after injury. There can be a sudden or gradual loss of consciousness, partial or full paralysis on the side opposite the injury, and dilation of the pupil of the eye on the same side as the injury.

The symptoms of chronic subdural hematoma are similar to those of a brain tumor, and may come and go. There may be subtle personality changes, or the patient may become confused, weak in various parts of the body, vague, and drowsy.  Subdural hematoma occasionally occurs in babies as a result of birth injury. Unless the injury is discovered and treated at an early stage, the child's mental and physical development may be retarded, and spastic paralysis can occur. Early surgery is usually successful in preventing permanent symptoms and disabilities.
Treatment. Prompt surgery is the only treatment for epidural hematoma. The clotted blood is removed by a combination of suction and irrigation methods through openings made in the skull, and the bleeding is controlled. The same surgery is used for subdural hematomas.
Septal Hematoma. Injury to the nose sometimes causes hematoma of the nasal septum. Its symptoms include nasal obstruction and headache. The condition may be treated by incision and drainage or may clear up spontaneously in a few weeks. If the hematoma becomes infected, an abscess may result, requiring drainage and treatment with antibiotics.
Subdural and epidural hematoma. A, Subdural hematoma. As a result of trauma to the head, small ruptured blood vessels leak blood into the space under the dura mater. The hematoma forms between the dura mater and the arachnoid membrane. B, Epidural hematoma. The result of a head injury that tears a large meningeal artery, causing the collection of a large amount of blood above the dura mater. The large epidural hematoma compresses brain tissue. If not relieved, subdural and epidural hematomas can be fatal.

he·ma·to·ma

(hē'mă-tō'mă, hem-ă-),
A localized mass of extravasated blood that is relatively or completely confined within an organ or tissue, a space, or a potential space; the blood is usually clotted (or partly clotted), and, depending on its duration, may manifest various degrees of organization and decolorization.
[hemato- + G. -oma, tumor]

hematoma

/he·ma·to·ma/ (he″mah-to´mah) a localized collection of extravasated blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space, or tissue.
subdural hematoma  a massive blood clot beneath the dura mater that causes neurologic symptoms by pressure on the brain.

hematoma

(hē′mə-tō′mə)
n. pl. hemato·mas or hemato·mata (-mə-tə)
A localized swelling filled with blood resulting from a break in a blood vessel.

hematoma

[hē′mətō′mə, hem′-] pl. hematomas, hematomata
Etymology: Gk, haima + oma, tumor
a collection of extravasated blood trapped in the tissues of the skin or in an organ, resulting from trauma or incomplete hemostasis after surgery. Initially there is frank bleeding into the space; if the space is limited, pressure slows and eventually stops the flow of blood. The blood clots, serum collects, the clot hardens, and the mass becomes palpable to the examiner and is often painful to the patient. A hematoma may be drained early in the process and bleeding arrested with pressure or, if necessary, with surgical ligation of the bleeding vessel. Considerable blood may be lost, and infection is a serious complication. Also spelled haematoma.
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Epidural hematoma

hematoma

A tumor-like mass produced by coagulated blood in a cavity. See Cerebral hematoma, Epidural hematoma.

he·ma·to·ma

(hē'mă-tō'mă)
A localized mass of extravasated blood that is relatively or completely confined within an organ or tissue, a space, or a potential space; the blood is usually clotted, and, depending on how long it has been there, may manifest various degrees of organization and decolorization.
Synonym(s): haematoma.

Hematoma

A localized collection of blood that accumulates in an organ, tissue, or body space as the result of leakage from a broken blood vessel. Hematomas sometimes develop within the nasal cartilage when the nose is fractured.

hematoma (hēˈ·m·tōˑ·m),

n an accumulation of clotted blood that develops within an open body space, organ, or tissue as a result of damage to a blood vessel.
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Hematoma.

haematoma

A swelling containing blood. It may result from injury (e.g. black eye) or from some blood disease, such as leukaemia. Note: also spelt hematoma.

he·ma·to·ma

(hē'mă-tō'mă)
Localized mass of extravasated blood relatively or completely confined within an organ or space; blood usually clots.
Synonym(s): haematoma.
[hemato- + G. -oma, tumor]

hematoma (hē´mətō´mə),

n a mass of blood in the tissue as a result of trauma or other factors that cause the rupture of blood vessels.
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Hematoma.
hematoma, subdural,
n a collection of extravasated blood trapped below the dural membranes of the brain causing pressure on the brain, resulting in pain and neural dysfunction. It may be life threatening.

hematoma

a localized collection of extravasated blood, usually clotted, in an organ, space or tissue. Contusions (bruises) are familiar forms of hematoma that are seldom serious. Hematomas can occur almost anywhere on the body; they are almost always present with a fracture and are especially serious when they occur inside the skull, where they may produce local pressure on the brain. In minor injuries the blood is absorbed unless infection develops.
For regional hematomas of individual importance see under anatomical name, e.g. ear, penile, vaginal, brain, ethmoid.

Patient discussion about hematoma

Q. What is hematoma?

A. "hem" means blood, it's a very common bruise - when you fall off your bicycles, you get hit. if you don't cut yourself too in the process- blood vessels usually get ripped and blood flows to that area. this causes a red/blue color. after a couple of weeks it'll change color to green and then yellow. this is the blood cells disintegrate.

More discussions about hematoma
References in periodicals archive ?
These findings were consistent with an isolated epididymal hematoma with no evidence of testicular injury.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lumbar spine revealed L2 vertebral fracture and epidural hematoma extending from L2 to L4.
NCCT scan of brain showed bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (left > right) with mass effect and midline shift of 5 mm towards the right side.
Patients and their doctors need to be aware of the various symptoms and signs, and follow up with a CT scan that most often can reveal or rule out a subdural hematoma.
Las pruebas radiologicas actuales deben ser el mecanismo fundamental para el diagnostico de esta patologia, no solo detectando el hematoma retroperitoneal sino aportando un diagnostico etiologico que permita evitar exploraciones quirurgicas innecesarias.
The patients met the diagnostic criteria of mild and moderate TICH (Wang 2005), as follows: those who were admitted within 24 hours after a cerebral injury confirmed by CT; with an intracranial hemorrhage volume between 10 and 40 ml; with no continuously enlarged hematoma after consecutive head CT examinations within 3 days, but not scheduled for surgery; aged between 16 and 65 years: and all with Glasgow coma score (GCS) greater than 8 (Teasdale and Jennett 1974).
He was transferred initially to a local emergency department, where a CT examination revealed small, thin subdural hematomas on each side of the brain.
Ureteral obstruction and vesicle compression secondary to hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle.
13) who performed laparoscopic decompression of a unilateral subcapsular hematoma causing a Page kidney that occurred after shock wave lithotripsy.
This case was clinically diagnosed as a spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage with subcapsular hematoma, otherwise known as WS.