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Related to heel effect: beam hardening
a result produced by an action.
additive effect the combined effect produced by the action of two or more agents, being equal to the sum of their separate effects.
adverse effect a symptom produced by a drug or therapy that is injurious to the patient.
Bainbridge effect Bainbridge reflex.
Bohr effect decreased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen caused by an increase of carbon dioxide; the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve is displaced to the right because of higher partial pressure of carbon dioxide and lower pH. See also Haldane effect.
Crabtree effect the inhibition of oxygen consumption on the addition of glucose to tissues or microorganisms having a high rate of aerobic glycolysis; the converse of the Pasteur effect.
cumulative effect the action of a drug or treatment resulting from repeated use.
Doppler effect see doppler effect.
experimenter e's demand characteristics.
extrapyramidal e's the side effects caused by neuroleptic medications, including dystonias, parkinsonism, akathisia, and tardive dyskinesia.
Haldane effect increased oxygenation of hemoglobin promotes dissociation of carbon dioxide; see also Bohr effect.
Hawthorne effect a psychological response in which the subjects in a research study change their behavior simply because they are subjects in a study, not because of the research treatment.
heel effect variation in x-ray beam intensity and projected focal spot size along the long axis of the x-ray tube from cathode to anode.
parallax effect the position of the image on each emulsion of dual emulsion film; it is accentuated by tube-angled x-ray techniques.
Pasteur effect the decrease in the rate of glycolysis and the suppression of lactate accumulation by tissues or microorganisms in the presence of oxygen.
photoelectric effect ejection of electrons from matter as a result of interaction with photons from high frequency electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays; the ejected electrons may be energetic enough to ionize multiple additional atoms.
placebo effect the total of all nonspecific effects, both good and adverse, of treatment; it refers primarily to psychological and psychophysiological effects associated with the caregiver-patient relationship and the patient's expectations and apprehensions concerning the treatment. See also placebo.
position effect in genetics, the changed effect produced by alteration of the relative positions of various genes on the chromosomes.
pressure effect the sum of the changes that are due to obstruction of tissue drainage by pressure.
proarrhythmic effect any new, more advanced form of arrhythmia caused by an antiarrhythmic agent, especially those that produce hemodynamically important symptoms. These arrhythmias occur less than 30 days after initiation of treatment and are not due to a new event such as acute myocardial infarction or hypokalemia.
side effect a consequence other than that for which an agent is used, especially an adverse effect on another organ system.
Somogyi effect see somogyi effect.
the x-ray intensity greater at the cathode end of the x-ray field and lower at the anode end because of absorption in the target material.
1. (rare) in cats and dogs, the hock joint or tarsus.
2. in ungulates, the place at the rear of the hoof or claw where horn and skin meet and where the wall of the hoof turns horizontally to become the sole.
one of the forms taken by foot abscess in sheep. There is pain and swelling at the affected heel, and separation and discharge of pus occurs at the skin-horn junction. The abscess is caused by infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum and Arcanobacterium pyogenes, the infection resulting from an extension of the infection from an interdigital dermatitis.
heel bulb necrosis
see infectious bulbar necrosis.
the heels of the affected hoof are closer together than normal, the frog is narrow and shrunken and the bars form a narrower angle than in the normal hoof. The horse is usually lame on the leg.
trimming the foot so that the heels can spread more.
unequal distribution of the x-ray beam intensity emitted from the x-ray tube. Due to angulation of the target, the distribution of the beam intensity decreases rapidly towards the anode due to absorption of the x-ray beam by the target and anode material.
vertical separation occurs between the heels of a horse's hoof causing lameness. A chronic condition due usually to overuse of one heel because of a conformational imbalance.