heart surgery


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heart surgery

any surgical procedure involving the heart, performed to correct acquired or congenital defects, replace diseased valves, open or bypass blocked vessels, or graft a prosthesis or a transplant. Two major types of heart surgery are performed: closed and open. The closed technique is done through a small incision, without use of the heart-lung machine. In the open technique the heart chambers are open and fully visible, and blood is detoured around the surgical field by the heart-lung machine. Preoperative care focuses on correcting metabolic imbalances and cardiac and pulmonary ailments and on performing diagnostic and laboratory tests. General anesthesia is used, the chest cavity is opened, and the heart-lung machine is connected. Hypothermia also is used to decrease the metabolic rate and the need of the tissues for oxygen. After surgery, constant observation is required in an intensive care unit for signs of hemorrhage and shock, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden chest pain, organ failure, and pulmonary edema. The blood pressure and all pulses, respirations, and venous and pulmonary artery pressures and cardiac rhythm (ECG) are monitored. If the blood pressure is high enough to ensure cerebral profusion, the head of the patient's bed is elevated to a semi-Fowler's position to encourage chest drainage and lung expansion. The patient is quickly extubated. Oxygen is provided. Chest tube drainage, urinary output, and temperature are noted hourly; IV infusions and sometimes blood transfusions are given. Narcotics help control pain so the patient can effectively cough, deep breathe, and become quickly mobile. Antibiotics are given to prevent infection. Mortality rate is highest during the first 48 hours after surgery. Common kinds of heart surgery include coronary bypass and endarterectomy. See also arrhythmia, fibrillation, heart-lung machine, hypothermia, pulmonary edema.

heart surgery

Surgical procedures performed on the heart and its blood vessels. They include heart valve stretching (valvotomy), valve replacement, coronary artery BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY, CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS operations, HEART REDUCTION, HEART VALVE REPLACEMENT, the closure of ‘holes in the heart’ (congenital septal defects) and PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, the correction of other congenital abnormalities and HEART TRANSPLANTATION.
References in periodicals archive ?
1 Beating Heart Surgery Systems Market, India, Volume (Units), by Segment, 2005-2012 103 6.
2) The Lakers' Ronny Turiaf (21) will undergo open heart surgery in four to six weeks.
Oftentimes, this type of defect requires open heart surgery early in life to implant a prosthetic valved conduit to establish adequate blood flow from the heart to the lungs.
1 -- color in SAC edition only) Chris Boyer plays with 8-month-old Danna Christine Ramon, who was brought to the United States for life-saving heart surgery.
Despite its reputation as a technically tricky procedure, beating-heart surgery has garnered renewed attention recently as the trend toward less-invasive methods of heart surgery grows stronger.
The brief statement was issued after Yeltsin's medical team met with American heart surgery pioneer, Dr.
The new system enables Medtronic Cardiac Surgery to continue its leadership in offering the world's most complete product portfolio to facilitate improved outcomes in arrested heart surgery and demonstrates a commitment to invest in innovate technologies to support perfusionists, surgeons and ultimately, patients.
Yeltsin, on vacation and resting up for heart surgery, formally handed over authority Tuesday for national security and law enforcement to his prime minister, Viktor Chernomyrdin.
Surgical mortality rates are now less than five percent, less complex heart defects can be corrected with minimally invasive procedures taking the place of open heart surgery, and better diagnostic tools are helping us diagnose and treat infants earlier.
Gehring soon underwent open heart surgery and has been enrolled in the hospital's fitness program since 1992.
The relatives of a woman who died after heart surgery at Los Robles Regional Medical Center in Thousand Oaks have filed suit, claiming that doctors used a defective device and negligently cut a major artery.
His writing schedule had been reduced to twice a week since 1994, when he had heart surgery.