heart surgery


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Related to heart surgery: open heart surgery

heart surgery

any surgical procedure involving the heart, performed to correct acquired or congenital defects, replace diseased valves, open or bypass blocked vessels, or graft a prosthesis or a transplant. Two major types of heart surgery are performed: closed and open. The closed technique is done through a small incision, without use of the heart-lung machine. In the open technique the heart chambers are open and fully visible, and blood is detoured around the surgical field by the heart-lung machine. Preoperative care focuses on correcting metabolic imbalances and cardiac and pulmonary ailments and on performing diagnostic and laboratory tests. General anesthesia is used, the chest cavity is opened, and the heart-lung machine is connected. Hypothermia also is used to decrease the metabolic rate and the need of the tissues for oxygen. After surgery, constant observation is required in an intensive care unit for signs of hemorrhage and shock, cardiac arrhythmias, sudden chest pain, organ failure, and pulmonary edema. The blood pressure and all pulses, respirations, and venous and pulmonary artery pressures and cardiac rhythm (ECG) are monitored. If the blood pressure is high enough to ensure cerebral profusion, the head of the patient's bed is elevated to a semi-Fowler's position to encourage chest drainage and lung expansion. The patient is quickly extubated. Oxygen is provided. Chest tube drainage, urinary output, and temperature are noted hourly; IV infusions and sometimes blood transfusions are given. Narcotics help control pain so the patient can effectively cough, deep breathe, and become quickly mobile. Antibiotics are given to prevent infection. Mortality rate is highest during the first 48 hours after surgery. Common kinds of heart surgery include coronary bypass and endarterectomy. See also arrhythmia, fibrillation, heart-lung machine, hypothermia, pulmonary edema.

heart surgery

Surgical procedures performed on the heart and its blood vessels. They include heart valve stretching (valvotomy), valve replacement, coronary artery BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY, CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS operations, HEART REDUCTION, HEART VALVE REPLACEMENT, the closure of ‘holes in the heart’ (congenital septal defects) and PATENT DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS, the correction of other congenital abnormalities and HEART TRANSPLANTATION.
References in periodicals archive ?
Though nobody wants to have an open heart surgery, but a new study has found that there is a significantly higher risk of damage for people having surgery in the morning, reports The Independent.
He stated that machinery to be used in heart surgery of children and EP system of treatment has been received.
So far, remote control surgery has also been used in brain and stomach surgery, and in infant heart surgery.
The Children's Heart Surgery Fund has instructed lawyers to challenge a landmark decision made by health bosses on July 4.
Prior to his departure to India for treatment of his daughter, Muslima Bibi, he told The News that he is a schoolteacher and does not have enough resources to meet the expenses for heart surgery of his daughter.
They work with patients who have undergone heart surgery to help them make lifestyle changes once they have come out of hospital.
EL SEGUNDO - A little more than a month after being cleared by doctors at the NBA's pre-draft camp, Lakers forward Ronny Turiaf has been found to have a potentially life-threatening condition that will require open heart surgery and could end his career before he ever plays a regular-season game.
Women undergoing heart surgery are more likely to die than men are.
Why is robotic heart surgery safer for the patient than conventional surgery?
Quite simply, this system is designed to reduce the number of times that certain patients may need to undergo open heart surgery by providing a minimally invasive, catheter-based solution to valve replacement.
They are raising awareness of the Children's Heart Surgery Unit, based at Leeds General Infirmary, which is threatened with closure.
NEWHALL - When little Danna, then 3 months old, arrived at the Boyer home from Ecuador last December to undergo heart surgery, the tiny girl with the full head of hair was blue and, according to doctors, had only a slim chance of surviving.