head kidney


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pro·neph·ros

, pl.

pro·neph·roi

(prō-nef'ros, -roy),
1. The definitive excretory organ of primitive fishes. Synonym(s): head kidney
2. In the embryos of higher vertebrates, a vestigial structure consisting of a series of tortuous tubules emptying into the cloaca by way of the primary nephric duct; in the human embryo, the pronephros is a very rudimentary and temporary structure, followed by the mesonephros and still later by the metanephros.
[pro- + G. nephros, kidney]

head kidney

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Trout head kidney incubated with 10 ug/ml LPS showed an increased expression of TNF- a (Teles et al.
In present study we compared the time and dose dependant expression of TNF-a in head kidney and spleen of Cirrihinusmrigala on stimulation with bacterial and viral synthetic antigens.
2011) stimulate the expression of IL-8 in human monocytic cell lines and the head kidney of Nile tilapia, respectively.
Gene expression analyses in head kidney and spleen of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) infected with Streptococcus agalactiae by expressed sequence tags (ESTs) technique.
Peritoneal and head kidney cell response to intraperitoneally injected yeast glucan in Atlantic salmon (Salmon salar L.