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hawthorne (Crataegus Species)

(haw-thorn) ,


(trade name),

cum flore

(trade name),


(trade name),


(trade name),


(trade name)


Therapeutic: antihypertensives
HypertensionMild to moderate HFAnginaSpasmolyticSedative


Active compounds in hawthorne include flavonoids and procyanidins.
Increase coronary blood flow.
Positive inotropic and chronotropic effects because of increased permeability to calcium and inhibition of phosphodiesterase.

Therapeutic effects

Increased cardiac output.
Decreased BP, myocardial workload, and oxygen consumption.


Absorption: Unknown.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Unknown.
Half-life: Unknown.

Time/action profile

POunknown6-8 wkunknown


Contraindicated in: Pregnancy (potential uterine activity); Lactation.
Use Cautiously in: Concurrent use with ACE inhibitors and digoxin; Do not discontinue use abruptly.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • agitation
  • dizziness
  • fatigue
  • vertigo
  • headache
  • sedation (high dose)
  • sleeplessness
  • sweating


  • hypotension (high dose)
  • palpitations


  • rash


  • nausea


May potentiate effects of digoxin, calcium channel blockers, and beta blockers.Concurrent use with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil ) and nitrates may potentiate vasodilatory effects.May cause additive CNS depression when used with other CNS depressants.Additive effect with other cardiac glycoside–containing herbs (digitalis leaf, black hellebore, oleander leaf, and others).Additive hypotensive effects with herbs than lower BP such as ginger, panax ginseng, coenzyme Q-10and valerian.Additive effect with other cardioactive herbs (devil’s claw, fenugreek, and others).
Oral (Adults) Heart failure—160–1800 mg standardized hawthorne leaf with flower extract in 2–3 divided doses daily. Hawthorne fluid extract (1:1 in 25% alcohol)—0.5–1 mL tid; hawthorne fruit tincture (1:5 in 45% alcohol)—1–2 mL tid; dried hawthorne berries—300–1000 mg tid.

Availability (generic available)

Dried fruit: OTC
Liquid extract of the fruit or leaf: OTC
Tincture of the fruit or leaf: OTC

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Monitor intake and output rations and daily weight. Assess for peripheral edema, auscultate lungs for rales and crackles during therapy.
  • Assess BP and pulse periodically during therapy.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Decreased cardiac output (Indications)
Deficient knowledge, related to medication regimen (Patient/Family Teaching)


  • Administered as 2–3 divided doses daily at the same time.
  • May be taken without regard to food.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Advise patients that there are other proven therapies available for treatment of heart failure. These therapies should be employed prior to initiating treatment with hawthorne.
  • Tell patient not to take hawthorne without the advice of health care professional.
  • Instruct patients in the symptoms of a heart attack (pain in the region of the heart, jaw, arm, or upper abdomen; sweating; chest tightness) and heart failure (shortness of breath, chest tightness, dizziness, sweating) and to promptly contact health care professional if they occur.
  • Advise patient to report weight gain or persistent swelling of the feet to health care professional.
  • May cause dizziness and fatigue. Patients should avoid driving or other activities that require mental alertness until response to herb is known.
  • Avoid alcohol and other CNS depressants while taking hawthorne without consulting health care professional.
  • Profuse sweating and dehydration under extreme heat may increase the BP-lowering properties of hawthorne, leading to severe hypotension. Warn patients to avoid exertion in hot weather to minimize the risk of side effects.
  • Instruct patients that hawthorne helps control the symptoms of heart failure but does not cure the disease. Lifestyle changes (salt restriction, weight management, exercise as tolerated, adherence to medication regimens) still need to be followed.
  • Instruct patient to consult health care professional before taking Rx, OTC, or other herbal products concurrently with hawthorne.
  • Advise female patients to use contraception during therapy and to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected or if breastfeeding.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in symptoms of HF. Effects may not be seen for 6 wks.
  • Improved cardiac output as evidenced by improved activity tolerance.
References in periodicals archive ?
Though Hawthorne gave well-written bangles to his old college chum, his actual goal was a job with a steady income to support his growing family.
In addition, McFarland strives to create a bio-history of the early 19th-century American experience captured with a zoom lens: offering up close and personal snapshots of idyllic family life at the Hawthornes' (mostly derived from other biographies and McFarland's copious reading of journals and thousands of letters) and then suddenly panning out to wide-angle political vistas of the impending Civil War or focused news updates of Hawthorne associates as they pass through Hawthorne's Concord years.
The sales achievement and standard of customer care at the Hawthornes has been excellent.
But particularly in his discussions of nineteenth-century class-bound beliefs about "self-made" manhood and "true" womanhood that shaped the Hawthornes as individuals and as a couple, he is in his own way as densely contextual as Miller.
Prior to joining Hawthorne Executive Search, she started a successful business which was focused on helping individuals find their ideal employment situation.
The Company, Hawthorne and their respective directors and executive officers and other members of management and employees may be deemed to be participating in the solicitation of proxies in respect of the proposed transactions.
This press release may be deemed to be solicitation material with respect to the proposed acquisition of Hawthorne and the issuance of shares of common stock by the Company pursuant to the merger.
We look forward to completing this transaction and thank our stockholders and customers for their loyalty and support," said Hawthorne President and Chief Executive Officer Simone Lagomarsino.
Hawthorne ranked 5th in deposits in the South Bay region of Los Angeles County with a 6% market share, or $986 million, at June 30, 2003, ranking behind only Bank of America (NYSE:BAC), Washington Mutual (NYSE:WM), Wells Fargo (NYSE:WFC) and Union Bank (NYSE:UB).
Hawthorne also specializes in real estate secured loans within the markets it serves.