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Arthur, English biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1865-1940. See: Harden-Young ester.
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Those tot plants bought at great expense might not survive a night in the open unless they are first hardened off by being placed outside on warm days for at least a week before transplanting, while being tucked up safely for the night in a shed, greenhouse or cold frame.
Seeds should be planted inside during March and April, then hardened off and sown outside in May and June.
Outdoor varieties will need to be hardened off in a cold frame before they are planted out after the frosts.
Pot up rooted cuttings of chrysanthemums and plant out well rooted plants once they have been hardened off in a cold frame.
For this reason tender plants bought from garden centres at this time of year should carry a health warning because those with very fresh, soft, young growth are unlikely to have been hardened off, a process that takes a couple of weeks.
Seeds should be sown individually in small pots indoors and then hardened off and planted when they have two or three leaves.