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Arthur, English biochemist and Nobel laureate, 1865-1940. See: Harden-Young ester.
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ADRIENNE SAYS: Chrysanthemums need to be kept in a cool, frost-free place so that the plants harden off ready for planting out in late May.
And don't believe for a moment global warming means there is no need to harden off young vegetables and annuals before planting out.
Transplant seedlings once the first leaves have formed and harden off before planting out at the end of spring, placing the seedlings around 30cm (12in) apart in rows 45cm (18in) apart.
n Harden off aubergines, marrow, peppers, pumpkins and tomatoes grown from seed before planting outside.
Take cuttings from summer-flowering clematis n Plant dormant dahlia tubers and young plants n Harden off hanging baskets and windowboxes ready to put in position outdoors when all danger of frost has passed n Begin feeding plants in containers and continue throughout the summer Renovate lawns by applying moss killer and then rake out the dead moss and accumulated debris n Pinch out the tips of all side shoots growing from main rod framework of outdoor grapevines n Thin gooseberry fruits, using the crop for cooking
In mild areas,begin to harden off young plants and overwintered cuttings.
I try to harden off for a week to 10 days, depending on how "soft" the plants were initially and the weather conditions.