It is the first free-electron laser (undulating magnets are shown) to produce pulses of hard X-rays, light whose wavelength is close to the width of an atom.
Like the hard X-ray laser, the phonon laser--which doesn't produce electromagnetic waves at all--was a long time coming.
The report also noted that "important scientific issues which require UV radiation have decreased in number since the 1984 Seitz-Eastman report compared to those which require hard x-rays
Since 2004, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift has been mapping the sky using hard X-rays.
Building up its exposure year after year, the Swift BAT Hard X-ray Survey is the largest, most sensitive and complete census of the sky at these energies," said Neil Gehrels, Swift's principal investigator at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md.
Neupert had proposed that as electrons accelerate to high energies, emitting radio waves and colliding with atoms to create the hard X-rays
, they also heat the ionized gas inside neighboring magnetic loops.
What's more, the spectrum of the object's copious hard X-rays
complied with theoretical expectations for an accretion disk surrounding a black hole.
Solar Max's hard-X-ray imaging spectrometer made the first observations of hard X-rays
from the "footpoints" of magnetic arches formed during the brief, early phase of solar flares, Gurman says.
Yohkoh's telescopes took images and spectra, in both soft and hard X-rays
, while ground-based instruments measured the associated magnetic fields and hydrogen-alpha emissions.
The Sandia scientists need both soft and hard X-rays
for Saturn's major applications--weapons testing and, ultimately, the development of X-ray lasers for potential use in advanced weaponry, microscopy and holography.
The research used a detector that observes both hard X-rays
and gamma rays, which Fishman manages in collaboration with William G.
The hard X-rays
found in these discoveries are supposed to come ultimately from processes of nuclear fusion and nuclear decay that between them make the heavier chemical elements.