hard exudates

hard exudates

discrete, yellow-white lipid particles characteristic of background retinopathy with diabetic eye disease; hard exudates on the macula cause blindness
References in periodicals archive ?
Detection of Hard Exudates and Red Lesions in the Macula Using a Multi scale Approach" IEEE journal, 9781-4673-1830-3/12.
In addition, the amount of hard exudates also decreased in more than half of the treated eyes.
Several other endpoints did not differ significantly between groups such as the occurrence of new retinopathy, of hard exudates or worsening in visual acuity.
Adjacent hard exudates or drusen are other features to help distinguish exudative AMD from diabetic retinopathy; in particular the location of these can provide clues to the diagnosis, since exudates arising from diabetes tend to be more circinate in nature, located in the peripheral macula.
Fundus examination revealed numerous dot and blot haemorrhages and hard exudates on the maculae of both eyes (Figure 4).
As the swelling increases, the optic nerve head appears enlarged and hard exudates may radiate from the centre of the fovea in the form of a 'macular fan' an incomplete star with the temporal part missing.
As a result of chronic swelling of the optic disc, hard exudates can precipitate around the disc (Figure 5) or can form a stellate pattern or macular star.
There is a strong association with risk of clinical stroke, sub-clinical stroke, cognitive decline, and cardiovascular mortality where there is moderate retinopathy and one or more of the following clinical signs are present: haemorrhages (hint, dot, or flame shaped), microaneurysms, cotton wool spots or hard exudates.
Hard exudates are extracellular collections of lipid within the outer plexiform layer, derived from leakage of serum from the abnormal vessels.
Diabetic maculopathy occurs when there is involvement of the fovea by oedema, hard exudates or ischaemia (figure 5).
b) Hard exudates within 500 microns of the fovea if associated with adjacent retinal thickening
Features graded in fields 2-8 include haemorrhages and/or microaneurysms, hard exudates, cotton wool spots, venous calibre abnormalities, venous sheathing, perivenous exudates, arteriolar abnormalities, IRMAs, arteriovenous nicking, neovasularisation elsewhere (NVE), fibrous proliferation, retinal elevation, preretinal haemorrhages, and vitreous haemorrhage.