polyp of palatine tonsil in a child: A new presentation.
Solitary Peutz-Jeghers type hamartomatous
polyps in the duodenum are not always associated with a low risk of cancer: two case reports.
Mostly polyps in children are solitary, friable, pedunculated, cherry red and are hamartomatous
Colorectal (Peutz-Jeghers-type hamartomatous
polyps), gastric, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancers
Minor clinical criteria include multiple randomly distributed pits in dental enamel, hamartomatous
rectal polyps, bone cysts, cerebral white matter radial migration lines, gingival fibromas, nonrenal hamartoma, retinal achromic patch, "'confetti" skin lesions, and multiple renal cysts.
Often creating uncertainties and confusion, several terms have been employed to describe hamartomatous
lesions caused by dysplastic epidermal appendages and fibroplasia.
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterised by seizures, cutaneous lesions and hamartomatous
lesions in various organs (1).
Germ line mutations in the SMAD4 gene have been shown to be associated with juvenile polyposis, an autosomal dominant syndrome predisposing to hamartomatous
polyps and colorectal carcinoma.
Other classic features of this condition include hamartomatous
colonic polyps and a predisposition to a variety of neoplasms.
Subsequent endoscopy demonstrated hundreds of benign hamartomatous
polyps throughout the gastrointestinal tract as well as glycogenated acanthosis of the esophagus.
The main features of this syndrome are found in the skin, eyes, brain, heart, and kidneys (Lendvay & Marshall, 2003) Diagnostic criteria were identified at a National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus conference (Roach, Gomez, & Northrup, 1998), and John has two of the major findings, cardiac rhabdomyoma and cortical tubers in the periventricular white matter of the brain, as well as one minor feature, a hamartomatous
lesion of the left kidney.
Table 1 Types of polyps found in the colon Types Malignant ** Neoplastic * (10 percent of all polyps)  Adenomas Yes  Adenocarcinoma Malignant ** Non-neoplastic (90 percent of all polyps)  Hyperplastic No  Inflammatory No (Pseudopolyps)  Hamartomatous
No  Lymphoid No Types Potential associations Neoplastic * (10 percent of all polyps)  Adenomas Adenocarcinoma  Adenocarcinoma Non-neoplastic (90 percent of all polyps)  Hyperplastic More common in patients in their 50's and 60's  Inflammatory Inflammatory bowel disease (Pseudopolyps)  Hamartomatous
Inherited polyposis syndromes  Lymphoid Often an incidental finding * Neoplastic: Abnormal growth of tissue which may be cancerous.