Decreasingpfmdr1 copy number in Plasmodium falciparum malaria heightens susceptibility to mefloquine, lumefantrine, halofantrine
, quinine, and artemisinin.
20) These HPLC methods were used to characterize the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic interaction of mefloquine in resistant P falciparum malaria on the Thai-Burma/Myanmar ** border, (21) assess the efficacy of halofantrine
in treating Thai patients who failed mefloquine chemoprophylaxis, (22) evaluate the potential of ciprofloxacin in treating drug-resistant falciparum malaria, (23) assess the effect of food on the disposition of halofantrine
in treating falciparum malaria (24) and determine the effectiveness of high-dose mefloquine in treating multidrugresistant falciparum malaria.
chloroquine, mefloquine, halofantrine
and quinine .
Nnadi, "Development and validation of novel hydrotropic solubilization method for spectrophotometric determination of halofantrine
in pure and solid dosage form," Scholar's Academic Journal of Pharmacy, vol.
metabolism in microsomes in man: major role of CYP 3A4 and CYP 3A5.
Evaluation of biochemical indices following administration of artemether, halofantrine
and a combination of artemether and lumefantrine in guinea pigs.
However, in 1993, reports of severe and sometimes fatal cardiotoxicity associated with the use of halofantrine
led the World Health 8 Organization to limit its use , and as of 2002, there were at least 20 reports of fatal cardiac 9 complications relating to use of the drug .
Anti-infection drugs: Erythromycin, Halofantrine
, Maraviroc, Primaquine, Quinine, Rilpivirine
Examination of oral absorption and lymphatic transport of halofantrine
in a triplec-annulated canine model after administration in selfmicroemulsifying drug delivery systems containing structured triglycerides.
A number of antimalarial drugs have been implicated in infertility: halofantrine
hydrochloride caused reduction in follicle size and cytoplasmic vacuolation in the ovary of the rats (Adjene and Agoreyo, 2003); chloroquine altered the oestrus cycle, lowered serum oestrogen, and LH levels, while serum FSH was unaltered and prevented the expected ovulation (Okanlawon and Ashiru, 1992); sperm motility as well as sperm counts were significantly decreased in pyrimethamine (PYR)-treated animals, and the fertility rate fell to zero (Kalla et al.
Lengthening of the QTc and severe cardiac arrhythmia has been observed, particularly after treatment with halofantrine
for chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria (11).
Antimalarial drug resistance has spread and intensified over the last 15-20 years, leading to a dramatic decline in the efficacy of most antimalarial drugs including aminoquinolines, halofantrine
, sulfadoxine-pyrimehtamine etc [6,10,76,50,55].