hemolytic jaundice

(redirected from haemolytic jaundice)
Also found in: Encyclopedia.

hemolytic

 [he″mo-lit´ik]
pertaining to, characterized by, or producing hemolysis.
hemolytic anemia anemia caused by the increased destruction of erythrocytes. A frequently fatal type occurs in infants as a result of Rh incompatibility with the mother's blood (see Rh factor and erythroblastosis fetalis). Other types result from mismatched blood transfusions; from industrial poisons such as benzene, trinitrotoluene (TNT), or aniline; and from hypersensitivity to certain antibiotics and tranquilizers (drug-induced hemolytic anemia). Another important cause is mechanical obstruction caused by microvascular or valvular abnormalities. In addition, it sometimes occurs as a result of a disorder of the immune response in which B-cell–produced antibodies fail to recognize the body's own erythrocytes and directly attack and destroy them (autoimmune hemolytic anemia). Finally, some types of hemolytic anemia appear in the course of other diseases such as leukemia, hodgkin's disease, other types of cancer, acute alcoholism, and liver diseases. Along with the usual symptoms of anemia, the patient may exhibit jaundice. If the cause of the condition can be determined, and if it can be successfully treated, there is a good chance of recovery. steroids and transfusion therapy are used to treat some types. In other cases, surgical removal of the spleen may bring about great improvement.
hemolytic disease of newborn erythroblastosis fetalis.
hemolytic jaundice a rare, chronic, and generally hereditary disease characterized by periods of excessive hemolysis due to abnormal fragility of the erythrocytes, which are small and spheroidal. It is accompanied by enlargement of the spleen and by jaundice. The hereditary form is also known as familial acholuric jaundice; there is also a rare acquired form. See also hyperbilirubinemia.
hemolytic uremic syndrome a form of thrombotic microangiopathy with renal failure, hemolytic anemia, and severe thrombocytopenia and purpura, usually seen in children but occurring at any age. Some authorities consider it identical to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

jaundice

 [jawn´dis]
yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments. It is usually first noticeable in the eyes, although it may come on so gradually that it is not immediately noticed by those in daily contact with the jaundiced person. Called also icterus.

Jaundice is not a disease; it is a symptom of a number of different diseases and disorders of the liver and gallbladder and of hemolytic blood disorders. One such disorder is the presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver to the intestine. This may obstruct the flow of bile, causing it to accumulate and enter the bloodstream. The obstruction of bile flow may cause bile to enter the urine, making it dark in color, and also decrease the bile in the stool, making it light and clay-colored. This condition requires surgery to remove the gallstone before it causes serious liver injury.

The pigment causing jaundice is called bilirubin. It is derived from hemoglobin that is released when erythrocytes are hemolyzed and therefore is constantly being formed and introduced into the blood as worn-out or defective erythrocytes are destroyed by the body. Normally the liver cells absorb the bilirubin and secrete it along with other bile constituents. If the liver is diseased, or if the flow of bile is obstructed, or if destruction of erythrocytes is excessive, the bilirubin accumulates in the blood and eventually will produce jaundice. Determination of the level of bilirubin in the blood is of value in detecting elevated bilirubin levels at the earliest stages before jaundice appears, when liver disease or hemolytic anemia is suspected.
Patient Care. Assessment of the patient with jaundice includes observations of the degree and location of yellowing, noting the color of urine and stools, and the presence of itching. Since jaundice can be accompanied by severe itching, frequent skin care is important to preserve skin integrity. Tepid sponge baths can help reduce discomfort and promote rest.

Patients with severe jaundice are at risk for encephalopathic changes that produce confusion, impaired mentation, and altered levels of consciousness. The potential for injury is increased and demands vigilance and safety measures to protect the patient.
Jaundice may be attributable to prehepatic (A), hepatic (B), or posthepatic (C) causes. From Damjanov, 2000.
acholuric jaundice jaundice without bilirubinemia, associated with elevated unconjugated bilirubin that is not excreted by the kidney. Familial acholuric jaundice is another name for the hereditary form of hemolytic jaundice.
breast milk jaundice elevated unconjugated bilirubin in some breast-fed infants due to the presence of an abnormal pregnane that inhibits glucuronyl transferase conjugating activity.
cholestatic jaundice that resulting from abnormality of bile flow in the liver.
familial nonhemolytic jaundice Gilbert disease.
hematogenous jaundice hemolytic jaundice.
hemolytic jaundice see hemolytic jaundice.
hepatocellular jaundice jaundice caused by injury to or disease of the liver cells.
leptospiral jaundice Weil's syndrome.
neonatal jaundice (jaundice of the newborn) icterus neonatorum.
nonhemolytic jaundice that due to an abnor-mality in bilirubin metabolism.
obstructive jaundice that due to blockage of the flow of bile.
physiologic jaundice mild icterus neonatorum during the first few days after birth.

he·mo·lyt·ic jaun·dice

jaundice resulting from increased production of bilirubin from hemoglobin as a result of any process (toxic, genetic, or immune) causing increased destruction of erythrocytes.

hemolytic jaundice

a yellowish discoloration of the skin and conjunctiva caused by a breakdown of red blood cells, which causes excessive amounts of bilirubin. See also hyperbilirubinemia.

he·mo·lyt·ic jaun·dice

(hē'mō-lit'ik jawn'dis)
Hepatic disorder that results from increased production of bilirubin from hemoglobin as a result of any process (e.g., toxic, genetic, or immune) causing increased destruction of erythrocytes.
Synonym(s): hematogenous jaundice, haemolytic jaundice.

he·mo·lyt·ic jaun·dice

(hē'mō-lit'ik jawn'dis)
Jaundice resulting from increased production of bilirubin from hemoglobin as a result of any process increasing destruction of erythrocytes.
Synonym(s): haemolytic jaundice.

jaundice

yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments. Called also icterus. It is usually first noticeable in the sclera.
The pigment causing jaundice is called bilirubin. It is derived from hemoglobin that is released when erythrocytes are hemolyzed and therefore is constantly being formed and introduced into the blood as worn-out or defective erythrocytes are destroyed by the body. Normally the liver cells absorb the bilirubin and secrete it along with other bile constituents. If the liver is diseased, or if the flow of bile is obstructed, or if destruction of erythrocytes is excessive, the bilirubin accumulates in the blood and eventually will produce jaundice. Determination of the level of bilirubin in the blood is of value in detecting elevated bilirubin levels at the earliest stages before jaundice appears, when liver disease or hemolytic anemia is suspected.
Enlarge picture
Jaundice in a horse's oral mucosa. By permission from Knottenbelt DC, Pascoe RR, Diseases and Disorders of the Horse, Saunders, 2003

acholuric jaundice
jaundice without bilirubinemia, associated with elevated unconjugated bilirubin that is not excreted by the kidney.
cholestatic jaundice
that resulting from abnormality of bile flow in the liver.
hematogenous jaundice
hemolytic jaundice.
hemolytic jaundice
jaundice associated with hemolytic anemia in which most of the bilirubin is unconjugated. Called also retention jaundice, prehepatic jaundice.
hemorrhagic jaundice
leptospirosis.
hepatocellular jaundice
jaundice caused by injury to or disease of the liver cells.
jaundice index
see icteric index.
nonhemolytic jaundice
that due to an abnormality in bilirubin metabolism.
obstructive jaundice
that due to blockage of the flow of bile, resulting in conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Called also regurgitation jaundice.
physiological jaundice
mild icterus neonatorum during the first few days after birth.
regurgitation jaundice
obstructive jaundice (above).
toxic jaundice
see hepatocellular jaundice (above).