The utilization of horsegram as human food is restricted due to presence of high level of enzyme inhibitors, haemagglutinin
activities, oligosaccharides, tannins, polyphenols and phytic acid compared to the other legumes which can be reduced below their mischief potential through processing (Dhumal and Bolbhat, 2012; Sharma, 2011).
180 ND hypogaea JL-24 Oil seeds Haemagglutinin Haemagglutinin Haemagglutinin
Activity Activity Activity (on Chicken (on Goat (on Human +O Blood Group) Blood Group) Blood Group) Helianthus 1:16 1:32 1:8 annuus LSF-11 Helianthus 1:8 1:16 1:2 annuus LSF-8 Carthamus ND ND ND tinctorius PBNS-12 Carthamus ND ND ND tinctorius PBNS-40 Arachis ND 1:8 ND hypogaea JL-24 ND- not detected.
Therefore, it was postulated that 19 S and 16 S toxins have both haemagglutinin
(HA) and non-toxin non-haemagglutin (NTNH) proteins whereas 12 S toxin is formed by association of NTNH protein only.
Ramamani S, Chandrasekhara HN and MK Narasimba Efficiency of inactivation of trypsin and haemagglutinins
by roasting of soybean (Glycine max).
Erythrocytes from small laboratory animals are more sensitive than human, horse, or sheep erythrocytes in Aeromonas haemoylsin and haemagglutinins
Raw beans contain toxic haemagglutinins
which are destroyed by cooking at high heat.
Recent investigations have found the H5 haemagglutinins
(HA) genes genetically different from the prototype strains selected last year for the pandemic vaccine development (WHO, EPR, 2005c).
Antigenic and sequence analysis of H3 influenza virus haemagglutinins
from pigs in Italy.
Also, raw beans contain a trypsin inhibitor and haemagglutinins
, which are antinutritional factors.
The allantoic fluid was tested for the presence of haemagglutinins
through haemagglutination test (HA) using 1% chicken erythrocytes.
Raw SB contain antigens (glycinin, [beta]-conglycinin) and several ANF (Kunitz and Bowman-Birk TI families, haemagglutinins
, raffinose, stachyose) that may cause intestinal immune responses and gut wall damage, possibly resulting in reduced growth performance in piglets (Li et al.
The high pathogenicity of enteric bacteria, including Shigella, to cause life-threatening intestinal and extra-intestinal infections has been linked to elaborate expression of virulence factors, such as toxins and haemagglutinins