Other fluoroquinolones such as gemifloxacin, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin
, trovafloxacin, and garenoxacin have been shown to be effective against M.
Comparative antimycobacterial activities of ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and grepafloxacin
14,15) A study by Yamaguchi et al16 demonstrated that both grepafloxacin
and levofloxacin undergo intestinal secretion via P-glycoprotein, and it was evidenced by decreases in their bioavailability when co-administered with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporine.
aureus F265 has also been reported to have increased resistance to nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin
, levofloxacin and ofloxacin, compared to S.
Sparfloxacin and grepafloxacin
were the most potent inhibitors of the HERG channel, with 50% inhibitory concentration ([IC.
Serious adverse drug effects in patients led to the withdrawal or restriction of four quinolones in the past decade (temafloxacin, grepafloxacin
, trovafloxacin, and sparfloxacin).
Some of the fluoroquinolones in the studies are no longer routinely used for safety reasons, such as trovafloxacin (Trovan), which is not used in community-acquired pneumonia, and grepafloxacin
, which is off the market.
Newer fluoroquinolones with higher in vitro activity against the pneumococcus, including levofloxacin, grepafloxacin
, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin, are available in the United States.
Concerns about potential QT interval prolongation have prompted Glaxo Wellcome to voluntarily withdraw its quinolone, grepafloxacin
, from the market.
Tatsuo Higuchi; Phone +81-3-3292-0021) and GlaxoSmithKline plc (GSK) have resolved their longstanding dispute relating to the then Glaxo Wellcome's voluntary withdrawal from the market in October 1999 of grepafloxacin
(generic name; trade names - RAXAR and VAXAR) by way of compensation payment by GSK to Otsuka.
and sparfloxacin, two quinolones most associated with long QTc, are no longer on the market.
Comparative bactericidal activities of ciprofloxacin, clinafloxacin, grepafloxacin
, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, and trovafloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae in a dynamic in vitro model.