We considered education, marital status, gravidity
, parity, age at first full-term pregnancy, lactation history, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, age at menarche, body mass index (BMI), weight, height, oral contraceptive (OC) use, menarche status at explosion, time from explosion to first full-term pregnancy, age at explosion, menopause status, age at menopause, hormone replacement therapy use, history of thyroid disease, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
The estimated difference was greater after adjustment for maternal height, gravidity
, maternal blood pressure, and season of birth (89 g; 95% CI, -27 to 204 g).
There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to demographic data, duration of the surgery, gravidity
or parity (Table I).
0) years (range 22 - 51 years) and the mean gravidity
and mean parity were 1.
The patients in both groups, who were similar in regard to gravidity
, parity, and gestation, received their respective treatments for 3 minutes before receiving a standardized spinal anesthetic consisting of 12 mg of bupivacaine, 0.
body mass index (weight in kilograms/height in square meters), gravidity
(number of pregnancies), parity (number of births), and lifetime duration of lactation in months (Glynn et al.
9) There is a greater risk of spontaneous miscarriage, although the magnitude of this risk is confounded by factors of gravidity
, birth order and reduced fecundicity.
Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated an inverse association between HDL cholesterol and parity or gravidity
, but there are few long-term prospective studies exploring this association, according to Dr.
Variables examined for their possible effects on the relationships of interest included maternal and paternal age, maternal race/ethnicity, parity, gravidity
, prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption, urban/rural residence, pregnancy complications such as hypertension and diabetes, and indicators of socioeconomic status such as maternal educational level and use of Medicaid to pay for prenatal care.
Each group was comparable with regard to other factors, including maternal age, parity, gravidity
, and breech type.
64 days), had no prenatal exposure to maternal smoking, and was matched to the exposed group on sex, birth weight, gestational age, Apgar scores, mother's age, gravidity
, education level, and annual family income (Table 1).
Both the clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism groups were more likely to deliver before term, compared with a control group of 129 women with no known medical diseases matched with the study cohort for age, gravidity
, parity, race, and birth year.