grape sugar


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d-glu·cose (G, Glc),

(glū'kōs),
Dextrose; a dextrorotatory monosaccharide (hexose) found in the free state in fruits and other parts of plants, and combined in glucosides, disaccharides (often with fructose in sugars), oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides; it is the product of complete hydrolysis of cellulose, starch, and glycogen. Free glucose also occurs in the blood, where it is a principal energy source for use by body tissues (normal human concentration, 70-110 mg per 100 mL); in diabetes mellitus, it appears in the urine. The epimers of d-glucose are d-allose, d-mannose, d-galactose, and l-idose. Dextrose should not be confused with the l-isomer, which is sinistrose.
Synonym(s): cellohexose

grape sugar

n.
Dextrose obtained from grapes.

sugar

(shug'ar) [Ult. fr. Arabic sukkar via L. succarum]
A sweet-tasting, low-molecular-weight carbohydrate of the monosaccharide or disaccharide groups. Common sugars include fructose, glucose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, and xylose. Oral or parenteral administration of sugars can prevent hypoglycemia caused by insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents.

Classification

Sugars are classified in two ways: the number of atoms of simple sugars yielded on hydrolysis by a molecule of the given sugar and the number of carbon atoms in the molecules of the simple sugars so obtained. Therefore, glucose is a monosaccharide because it cannot be hydrolyzed to a simpler sugar; it is a hexose because it contains six carbon atoms per molecule. Sucrose is a disaccharide because on hydrolysis it yields two molecules, one of glucose and one of fructose.

See: carbohydrate

beet sugar

Sucrose obtained from sugar beets.

birch sugar

Xylose.

blood sugar

Glucose in the blood, normally 60 to 100 mg/100 ml of blood. It rises after consumption of a meal to variable levels, depending on the content of the meal, the activity level of and medications used by the consumer, and other variables. In diabetes mellitus, fasting blood sugar levels exceed 126 mg/dl.
See: glucose

cane sugar

Sucrose obtained from sugar cane.

fruit sugar

Fructose.

grape sugar

Glucose.

invert sugar

Mixture consisting of one molecule of glucose and one of fructose resulting from the hydrolysis of sucrose.

malt sugar

Maltose.

milk sugar

Lactose.

muscle sugar

Inositol. It is not a true sugar.

simple sugar

A sugar molecule made of few components (e.g., a monosaccharide or disaccharide).

wood sugar

Xylose.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The spirit immediately arrests the fermentation, producing a sweet wine with about 10 per cent natural grape sugar and about 20 per cent abv.
This process, known as mutage, arrests the fermentation and allows the wine to retain its natural sweetness from unfermented grape sugars.
Growers and winemakers began picking in earnest last weekend when a heat wave that brought 100-degree temperatures sent grape sugars soaring.