tumor

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tumor

 [too´mor]
1. swelling or morbid enlargement; this is one of the cardinal signs of inflammation.
2. a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. Tumors are also called neoplasms, which means that they are composed of new and actively growing tissue. Their growth is faster than that of normal tissue, continuing after cessation of the stimuli that evoked the growth, and serving no useful physiologic purpose. adj., adj tu´morous.

Tumors are classified in a number of ways, one of the simplest being according to their origin and whether they are malignant or benign. Tumors of mesenchymal origin include fibroelastic tumors and those of bone, fat, blood vessels, and lymphoid tissue; they may be benign or malignant (sarcoma). Tumors of epithelial origin are found in glandular tissue and such organs as the breast, stomach, uterus, or skin; they also may be either benign or malignant (carcinoma). Mixed tumors contain different types of cells derived from the same primary germ layer, and teratomas contain cells derived from more than one germ layer; both kinds may be benign or malignant.
Benign Tumors. Benign tumors do not endanger life unless they interfere with normal functions of other organs or affect a vital organ. They grow slowly, pushing aside normal tissue but not invading it. They are usually encapsulated, well demarcated growths. They are not metastatic; that is, they do not form secondary tumors in other organs. Benign tumors usually respond favorably to surgical treatment and some forms of radiation therapy.
Malignant Tumors. These tumors are composed of embryonic, primitive, or poorly differentiated cells. They grow in a disorganized manner and so rapidly that nutrition of the cells becomes a problem. For this reason necrosis and ulceration are characteristic of malignant tumors. They also invade surrounding tissues and are metastatic, initiating the growth of similar tumors in distant organs. (See also cancer.)
Gross appearance of benign (A) and malignant (B) tumors. From Damjanov, 2000.
benign tumor one that lacks the properties of invasiveness and metastasis and that is usually surrounded by a fibrous capsule; its cells also show a lesser degree of anaplasia than those of a malignant tumor do.
bladder tumor a tumor of the urinary bladder; see also bladder cancer.
brain tumor see brain tumor.
brown tumor a giant-cell granuloma produced in and replacing bone, occurring in osteitis fibrosa cystica and due to hyperparathyroidism.
Burkitt's tumor Burkitt's lymphoma.
Buschke-Löwenstein tumor a slow-growing mass of warts found usually in the prepuce but sometimes elsewhere in the perianal region; it starts as a plaque and may grow into a large cauliflowerlike mass. Called also giant condyloma.
carcinoid tumor carcinoid (def. 1).
carotid body tumor a chemodectoma of a carotid body, found as a firm round mass at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
connective tissue tumor any tumor arising from a connective tissue structure, such as a fibroma or sarcoma.
desmoid tumor desmoid (def. 1).
endodermal sinus tumor yolk sac tumor.
erectile tumor cavernous hemangioma.
Ewing's tumor Ewing's sarcoma.
false tumor pseudotumor.
fibroid tumor
germ cell tumor any of a group of tumors arising from primitive germ cells, usually of the testis or ovum; they range from benign to highly malignant. Types include germinoma, yolk sac tumor, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma, and some types of choriocarcinoma; many tumors are mixtures of types.
giant cell tumor
1. a benign or malignant tumor containing giant cells; see under carcinoma, granuloma, and sarcoma.
2. a bone tumor, ranging from benign to frankly malignant, composed of cellular spindle cell stroma containing multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts.
3. a small yellow benign tumorlike nodule of tendon sheath origin, usually of the wrist and fingers or ankle and toes, laden with lipophages and containing multinucleated giant cells.
glomus tumor
1. a blue-red, extremely painful chemodectoma involving an arteriovenous anastomosis or cluster of blood cells, which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. Such tumors may also occur in the stomach and nasal cavity.
granular cell tumor a relatively common neoplasm whose cells have a granular appearance by light microscopy; it is usually benign but occasionally malignant, and multiple tumors may occur. It can be found anywhere but is most often seen in the oral cavity, especially in the tongue.
granulosa tumor (granulosa cell tumor) see granulosa cell tumor.
granulosa-theca cell tumor see granulosa-theca cell tumor.
heterologous tumor one made up of tissue differing from that in which it grows.
homoiotypic tumor (homologous tumor) one made up of tissue resembling that in which it grows.
Hürthle cell tumor see hürthle cell tumor.
islet cell tumor a tumor of the islands of Langerhans; many secrete excessive amounts of hormones. Types include gastrinoma, glucagonoma, insulinoma, somatostatinoma, and vipoma.
Krukenberg's tumor see krukenberg's tumor.
lipoid cell tumor of ovary a usually benign ovarian tumor composed of eosinophilic cells or cells with lipoid vacuoles; it causes masculinization.
tumor lysis syndrome severe hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hyperuricemia, and hypocalcemia occurring after effective induction chemotherapy of rapidly growing malignant neoplasms; thought to be due to release of intracellular products after cell lysis.
malignant tumor one that has the properties of invasiveness and metastasis and that shows a greater degree of anaplasia than a benign tumor does.
mast cell tumor mastocytoma.
melanotic neuroectodermal tumor a benign, rapidly growing, dark tumor of the jaw or occasionally some other site, almost always seen in infants; called also melanoameloblastoma.
mixed tumor one composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
tumor necrosis factor receptor–associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) familial periodic fever.
organoid tumor teratoma.
peripheral neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) any of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms originating in supporting structures or neuronal tissue, primarily of the extremities, pelvis, or chest wall; seen most often in adolescents and young adults and frequently having widespread metastases.
plasma cell tumor
1. plasma cell dyscrasias.
sand tumor psammoma.
Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor androblastoma (def. 1).
theca cell tumor a fibroidlike tumor of the ovary containing yellow areas of fatty material derived from theca cells.
turban t's multiple cylindromas of the scalp that are grouped together so as to cover the entire scalp.
Wilms' tumor a rapidly developing malignant mixed tumor of the kidneys, made up of embryonal elements, occurring chiefly in children before the seventh year; a genetic component is suspected in its etiology. It may be accompanied by congenital defects such as urinary tract abnormalities, absent iris of the eye, and asymmetry of parts. With treatment, the prognosis is excellent. Called also embryonal carcinosarcoma and nephroblastoma.
yolk sac tumor a malignant germ cell tumor of children that represents a proliferation of both yolk sac endoderm and extraembryonic mesenchyme. It produces α-fetoprotein and most often occurs in the testes, but is also seen in the ovaries and some extragonadal sites. Called also endodermal sinus tumor.

tu·mor

(tū'mŏr), Avoid the jargonistic use of this word as a synonym of neoplasm.
1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
2. Synonym(s): neoplasm
3. One of the four signs of inflammation (t., calor, dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus.
[L. tumor, a swelling]

tumor

/tu·mor/ (too´mer)
1. swelling, one of the cardinal signs of inflammation; morbid enlargement.
2. neoplasm; a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive.

adenomatoid odontogenic tumor  a benign odontogenic tumor with ductlike or glandlike arrangements of columnar epithelial cells, usually occurring in the anterior jaw region.
Askin's tumor  a malignant small-cell tumor of soft tissue in the thoracopulmonary region in children; one of the peripheral neuroectodermal tumors.
benign tumor  one lacking the properties of invasion and metastasis and showing a lesser degree of anaplasia than do malignant tumors; it is usually surrounded by a fibrous capsule.
Brenner tumor  a rare, usually benign, tumor of the ovary characterized by groups of epithelial cells lying in a fibrous connective tissue stroma.
brown tumor  a giant-cell granuloma produced in and replacing bone, occurring in osteitis fibrosa cystica and due to hyperparathyroidism.
Buschke-Löwenstein tumor  a large, destructive, penetrating, cauliflower-like mass on the prepuce, especially in uncircumcised males, and also in the perianal region.
carcinoid tumor  carcinoid.
carcinoma ex mixed tumor  carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma.
carotid body tumor  a chemodectoma of the carotid body, a firm, round mass at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery.
dermal duct tumor  a small, intradermal, papular, eccrine lesion occurring on the head and neck in older adults.
desmoid tumor  an unencapsulated locally invasive fibromatous tumor arising in the musculoaponeurotic tissue, usually the abdominal wall, and often resembling fibrosarcoma.
diarrheogenic tumor  VIPoma.
endodermal sinus tumor  yolk sac t.
erectile tumor  cavernous hemangioma.
Ewing's tumor  see under sarcoma.
false tumor  structural enlargement due to extravasation, exudation, echinococcus, or retained sebaceous matter.
feminizing tumor  a functional tumor that produces feminization in boys and men or precocious sexual development in girls, e.g., germinoma.
fibrohistiocytic tumor  a tumor containing cells resembling histiocytes and others resembling fibroblasts; often used to denote the most general meaning of benign or malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
functional tumor , functioning tumor a hormone-secreting tumor in an endocrine gland.
germ cell tumor  any of a group of tumors arising from primitive germ cells, usually of the testis or ovary.
giant cell tumor 
1. a bone tumor, ranging from benign to frankly malignant, composed of cellular spindle cell stroma containing multinucleated giant cells resembling osteoclasts.
2. a benign, small, yellow, tumor-like nodule of tendon sheath origin, most often of the wrist and fingers or ankle and toes, laden with lipophages and containing multinucleated giant cells.
glomus tumor 
1. a benign, blue-red, painful tumor involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body).
glomus jugulare tumor  a chemodectoma involving the tympanic body (glomus jugulare).
granular cell tumor  a usually benign, circumscribed, tumor-like lesion of soft tissue, particularly of the tongue, composed of large cells with prominent granular cytoplasm; the histiogenesis is uncertain, but Schwann cell derivation is favored.
granulosa tumor , granulosa cell tumor an ovarian tumor originating in the cells of the membrana granulosa.
granulosa-theca cell tumor  an ovarian tumor composed of granulosa (follicular) cells and theca cells; either form may predominate.
heterologous tumor , heterotypic tumor one made up of tissue differing from that in which it grows.
hilar cell tumor  a rare benign neoplasm of the hilus of the ovary, histologically resembling Leydig cell tumor of the testis.
homologous tumor  one resembling the surrounding parts in its structure.
Hürthle cell tumor  new growth of the thyroid gland composed predominantly of Hürthle cells; it is usually benign (Hürthle cell adenoma) but may be locally invasive or metastasize (Hürthle cell carcinoma or malignant Hürthle cell tumor).
islet cell tumor  a tumor of the pancreatic islets; many secrete excessive amounts of hormones. Types include gastrinoma, glucagonoma, insulinoma, somatostatinoma, and VIPoma.
Krukenberg's tumor  carcinoma of the ovary, usually metastatic from gastrointestinal cancer, marked by areas of mucoid degeneration and by the presence of signet-ring–like cells.
Leydig cell tumor 
1. a usually benign, nongerminal tumor of the Leydig cells of the testis.
lipoid cell tumor of ovary  a usually benign ovarian tumor composed of eosinophilic cells or cells with lipoid vacuoles; it causes masculinization.
malignant tumor  one having the properties of invasion and metastasis and showing a high degree of anaplasia.
mast cell tumor  mastocytosis.
melanotic neuroectodermal tumor  a benign, rapidly growing, dark tumor of the jaw and occasionally of other sites; seen almost exclusively in infants.
mixed tumor  a tumor composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue.
müllerian mixed tumor  a malignant mixed tumor of the uterus containing both endometrial adenocarcinoma and sarcomatous cells that may be either of uterine or extrauterine origin.
neuroendocrine tumor , neuroendocrine cell tumor any of a diverse group of tumors containing neurosecretory cells that cause endocrine dysfunction; most are carcinoids or carcinomas.
nonfunctional tumor , nonfunctioning tumor a tumor located in an endocrine gland but not secreting hormones.
odontogenic tumor  a lesion derived from mesenchymal or epithelial elements, or both, that are associated with the development of the teeth; it occurs in the mandible or maxilla, or occasionally the gingiva.
papillary tumor  papilloma.
pearl tumor , pearly tumor cholesteatoma.
peripheral neuroectodermal tumor  a primitive neuroectodermal tumor occurring outside of the central nervous system in a site such as the pelvis, a limb, or the chest wall.
phyllodes tumor  a large, locally aggressive, sometimes metastatic fibroadenoma in the breast, with an unusually cellular, sarcomalike stroma.
primitive neuroectodermal tumor  (PNET) proposed name for a heterogeneous group of neoplasms thought to derive from undifferentiated cells of the neural crest.
proliferating trichilemmal tumor  a large, solitary, multilobulated lesion of the hair follicle, occurring on the scalp, usually in middle-aged or older women; often confused with squamous cell carcinoma.
sand tumor  psammoma.
squamous odontogenic tumor  a benign odontogenic epithelial neoplasm occurring in the mandible or maxilla and believed to derive from transformation of the rests of Malassez.
stromal tumors  a diverse group of tumors derived from the ovarian stroma, many of which secrete sex hormones.
teratoid tumor  teratoma.
testicular tumor  a general term for any tumor of the testes; in adults these are almost always malignant germinomas, whereas in children many are yolk sac tumors or benign varieties such as teratomas or androblastomas.
theca cell tumor  a fibroid-like ovarian tumor containing yellow areas of lipoid material derived from theca cells.
turban tumor  a term used to describe the gross appearance of multiple cutaneous cylindromas of the scalp.
virilizing tumor  a functional tumor that produces virilization in girls and women or precocious sexual development in boys.
Warthin's tumor  adenolymphoma.
Wilms' tumor  a rapidly developing malignant mixed tumor of the kidneys, made up of embryonal elements, usually affecting children before the fifth year.
yolk sac tumor  a germ cell tumor that represents a proliferation of both yolk sac endoderm and extraembryonic mesenchyme; it produces α-fetoprotein and is usually in the testes.

tumor

(to͞o′mər, tyo͞o′-)
n.
1. An abnormal growth of tissue resulting from uncontrolled, progressive multiplication of cells and serving no physiological function; a neoplasm.
2. A swollen part; a swelling: a plant tumor.

tu′mor·al, tu′mor·ous adj.

tumor (T)

[t(y)o̅o̅′mər]
Etymology: L
1 a swelling or enlargement occurring in inflammatory conditions.
2 also called neoplasm, a new growth of tissue characterized by progressive, uncontrolled proliferation of cells. The tumor may be localized or invasive, benign or malignant. A tumor may be named for its location, for its cellular makeup, or for the person who first identified it.

tumor

1. A neoplasm, benign or malignant. See Benign tumor, Blue cell tumor, Bone tumor, Borderline tumor, Brain tumor, Carcinoid tumor, Carcinoma ex-mixed tumor, Carotid body tumor, Desmoid tumor, Desmoplastic round cell tumor, Ewing family of tumors, Fibrous tumor of childhood, Gastrointestinal autonomic nerve tumor, Gastrointestinal stromal tumor, Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath, Glial tumor, Glomus tumor, Granular cell tumor, Heart tumor, Hilus tumor, Hürthle cell tumor, Internists' tumor, Intracranial tumor, Krükenberg tumor, Kulchitsky cell tumor, Leydig cell tumor, Malignant mesodermal tumor, Medullary tumor, Metastatic tumor, Metastatic brain tumor, Mixed tumor, Neuroectodermal tumor, Neuroendocrine tumor, Pancreatic endocrine tumor, Peripheral nerve sheath tumor, Phantom tumor, Pigmented neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, Potato tumor, Pott's puffy tumor, Primary tumor, Pseudotumor, Pseudotumor cerebri, Round cell tumor, Sclerosing stromal tumor, Secondary tumor, Sex cord-stromal tumor, Skin adnexal tumor, Small round cell tumor, Solid tumor, Solid tumor of childhood, Spaghetti tumor, Spontaneous tumor, Steroid cell tumor, Sugar tumor, Theca cell tumor, Triton tumor, Turban tumor, Warthin's tumor, Wilms tumor, Yolk sac tumor.
2. A term of waning popularity for a local swelling.

tu·mor

(tū'mŏr)
1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
2. Synonym(s): neoplasm, tumour.
3. One of the four signs of inflammation (tumor, calor, dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus.
Synonym(s): tumour.
[L. tumor, a swelling]

tumor

(too'mor) [L. tumor, a swelling]
1. A swelling or enlargement; one of the four classic signs of inflammation.
2. An abnormal mass. Growth or proliferation that is independent of neighboring tissues is a hallmark of all tumors, benign and malignant. Synonym: neoplasm See: cancer

adenomatoid odontogenic tumor

Adenoameloblastoma.
Enlarge picture
BRAIN TUMOR

brain tumor

An inexact term to describe any intracranial mass: neoplastic, cystic, inflammatory (abscess), or syphilitic.

Neoplastic brain tumors may be benign or malignant. Malignant brain lesions may be primary or secondary, resulting from metastatic spread of other cancers. Primary malignant brain tumors make up from 10% to 30% of adult cancers and about 20% in children, but any of these tumors may occur at any age. Incidence in children is usually greatest before age 12, with astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, ependymomas, and brain stem gliomas being most common. In adults the most common tumors are gliomas and meningiomas, usually occurring supratentorially. Other malignant tumor types are oligodendrogliomas and acoustic neuromas (Schwannomas). Most malignant brain tumors are metastatic, with 20% to 40% of patients with cancer developing brain metastasis. The cause of primary brain cancers is unknown; however, one known environmental risk is exposure to ionizing radiation. Cell phone use has been implicated in acoustic neuromas. Central nervous system changes occur as the lesions invade and destroy tissue, and, because the tumors compress the brain, cranial nerves, and cerebral blood vessels, the compression causes cerebral edema and increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Most clinical signs are due to the increased ICP, but signs and symptoms may vary due to the type of tumor, its location, and the degree and speed of invasion. Usually the onset of symptoms is insidious, with brain tumors frequently misdiagnosed.

Diagnosis

The patient is evaluated for neurological deficits (headache, mental activity changes, behavioral changes, weakness, sensory losses, or disturbances of vision, speech, gait, or balance). The patient is monitored for seizures and increased ICP. Diagnostic tools include skull x-rays, brain scan, CT scan, MRI, cerebral angiography, and EEG. Lumbar puncture demonstrates increased pressure and protein levels, decreased glucose levels, and (sometimes) tumor cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Definitive diagnosis is by tissue biopsy performed by stereotactic surgery.

Treatment

Treatment includes excision if the tumor is resectable, and size reduction if he tumor is not respectable; relieving cerebral edema, reducing ICP, and managing other symptoms; and preventing further neurologic damage. Treatment is determined by the tumor’s histology, radiosensitivity, and location. Functional MRI can map the brain function surrounding a tumor to help design a surgical approach that removes the tumor while avoiding damage to areas critical for normal functioning. Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, and/or decompression for increased ICP with diuretics, corticosteroids, or sometimes ventroatrial or ventroperitoneal CSF shunting. Focused and computerized robotic radiation methods such as the Gamma Knife and Cyberknife permit delivery of more radiation to the tumor and less to surrounding normal tissue.

Patient care

Radiation therapy can cause inflammation; therefore the patient is monitored for increasing ICP. If radiation is to be used after surgery, it will be delayed until the surgical wound has healed. However, even after local healing occurs, radiation can break down the wound; therefore the area of the incision must be assessed for infection and sinus formation. Chemotherapy for malignant brain tumors includes use of nitrosureas (BCNU, CCNU, procarbazine) to help break down the blood-brain barrier allowing entrance of other chemotherapy agents. Antiemetics are provided before and after chemotherapy to minimize nausea and prevent vomiting. The patient is assessed over the following weeks for bone marrow suppression, is advised to report signs of infection or bleeding, and is to avoid contact with crowds and people with respiratory infections. The oral agent temozolomide (Temodar) crosses the blood-brain barrier and is usually well tolerated by the patient. Intrathecal or intra-arterial administration helps increase drug action. Convection-enhanced delivery systems infuse the antitumor agent directly into the brain, bypassing the blood-brain barrier, to pump drugs slowly through 2 to 4 implanted catheters to where a tumor was removed, to attach to and kill remaining tumor cells, and to shrink a tumor before surgery. A disc-shaped drug wafer can be implanted during surgery to deliver chemotherapy directly to the tumor. MRI spectroscopy reveals the physiology of treated tumors to differentiate dead tissue from an actively growing tumor. The patient must be monitored closely for changes in neurologic status and increases in ICP. A patent airway must be maintained and respiratory changes monitored. The patient's safety must be ensured. Temperature must be monitored closely. Steroids and osmotic diuretics are administered as prescribed. Fluid intake may be restricted to 1500 ml/24 hr. Fluid and electrolyte balance is monitored to prevent dehydration. Stress ulcers may occur; therefore the patient is assessed for abdominal distention, pain, vomiting, and tarry stools. Stools are tested for occult blood. Antacids and anti-histamine-2 agents are administered as prescribed.

For postcraniotomy surgery, all general patient care concerns apply. General neurologic status and ICP remain the assessment priorities. Positioning of the patient after surgery depends on the procedure: after supratentorial craniotomy, the head of the bed should be elevated 30° and the patient positioned on the side to promote venous drainage, reduce cerebral edema, allow drainage of secretions and prevent aspiration. After infratentorial craniotomy, the patient should be kept flat for 48 hr but log-rolled side to side every 2 hr to minimize complications from immobility. Because brain tumors and their treatment frequently result in residual disabling neurologic deficits, a rehabilitation program should be started early. Physical and occupational therapists help the patient maintain independence and quality of life and provide aids for self-care and mobility. If the patient is aphasic or develops dysphagia, a speech pathologist must be consulted. Depression is common, and psychological consultation for behavioral or drug therapies may be helpful.

Emotional support is provided to the patient and family for treatments, disabilities, changes in lifestyle, and end-of-life issues. The patient and family are referred to resource and support services (e.g., social service, home health care agencies, the American Cancer Society, and other such voluntary agencies).

illustration

Brenner tumor

See: Brenner tumor

brown tumor

A benign fibrotic mass found within the bone of patients with unchecked hyperparathyroidism. The tumor appears brown on gross examination because it contains blood and by-products of the metabolism of hemoglobin.

Buschke-Loewenstein tumor

A giant condyloma acuminatum, typically found on the genitals or anus, caused by infection with papilloma virus. In men, it is almost always found under the foreskin (it is rarely reported in circumcised men). It may transform into a verrucous carcinoma and cause deep local tissue invasion.

calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor

Pindborg tumor.

carotid body tumor

A benign tumor of the carotid body.

collision tumor

1. A malignant growth made up of two or more different cell types occurring simultaneously in the same location.
2. A cancerous growth made up of two or more malignancies that have metastasized toward each other.

connective tissue tumor

Any tumor of connective tissue such as fibroma, lipoma, chondroma, or sarcoma.

Dapaong tumor

A painful, nodular mass in the large bowel, a result of infection with Oesophagostomum bifurcum, a West African worm.

desmoid tumor

A tumor of fibrous connective tissue.
Synonym: desmoma

dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor

Abbreviation: DNET
A benign mass of misshapen brain cells. DNETs are a relatively rare cause of seizures in children and adolescents.

endocrine-inactive tumor

A pituitary adenoma that does not secrete a clinically important concentration of hormones. Endocrine-inactive tumors were formerly known as chromophobe adenomas. They are the most commonly detected neoplasms of the pituitary gland.

erectile tumor

A tumor composed of erectile tissue.

Ewing tumor

See: Ewing tumor

false tumor

An enlargement due to hemorrhage into tissue or extravasation of fluid into a space, rather than cancer.

fibroid tumor

Uterine leiomyoma.

follicular tumor

An epidermoid cyst.

functioning tumor

A tumor that is able to synthesize the same product as the normal tissues from which it arises, esp. an endocrine or nonendocrine tumor that produces hormones.

giant cell tumor

1. A malignant or benign bone tumor that probably arises from connective tissue of the bone marrow. Histologically, it contains a vascular reticulum of stromal cells and multinucleated giant cells.
2. A yellow giant cell tumor of a tendon sheath.
3. Epulis.
4. A chondroblastoma.

giant cell tumor of bone

A benign or malignant tumor of bone in which the cells are multinucleated and surrounded by cellular spindle cell stroma.

giant cell tumor of tendon sheath

A localized nodular tenosynovitis.

granulosa cell tumor

A malignant tumor that arises from the supporting cells (stromal cells) that encircle the ovary. Many of these cells produce estrogen; those that do can cause breast tenderness, endometrial hyperplasia, menorrhagia, or, in children, sexual precocity.

granulosa-theca cell tumor

An estrogen-secreting tumor of the ovary made up of either granulosa or theca cells.

Gubler tumor

See: Gubler, Adolphe

heterologous tumor

A tumor in which the tissue differs from that in which it is growing.

homologous tumor

A tumor in which the tissue resembles that in which it is growing.

Hürthle cell tumor

See: Hürthle, Karl W.

hilus cell tumor

A rare, steroid-hormone–producing tumor of the ovary. It is an occasional cause of virilization.

islet cell tumor

A tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas.

Klatskin tumor

See: Klatskin tumor

Krukenberg tumor

See: Krukenberg, Friedrich Ernst

lipoid cell tumor of the ovary

A masculinizing tumor of the ovary. It may be malignant.

mast cell tumor

A benign nodular accumulation of mast cells.

melanotic neuroectodermal tumor

A benign tumor of the jaw, occurring mostly during the first year of life.

mesenchymal mixed tumor

A tumor composed of tissue that resembles mesenchymal cells.

milk tumor

A colloquial term for a galactocele.
Synonym: galactocele (1) See: caked breast

Pancoast tumor

See: Pancoast tumor

papillary tumor

A neoplasm composed of or resembling enlarged papillae.
See: papilloma

phantom tumor

1. An apparent tumor due to muscular contractions or flatus that resolves on reexamination of the patient.
2. A mass that resembles a tumor in only one view of a chest x-ray film. On other views it either disappears or appears to be an encapsulated fluid collection.

placental site trophoblastic tumor

Abbreviation: PSTT
A rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease simulating carcinoma and arising at the attachment of the placenta to the uterine wall.

Pindborg tumor

See: Pindborg tumor

primary tumor

In a patient with metastatic cancer, the lesion assumed to be the source of the metastases.

primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Abbreviation: PNET
Medulloblastoma.

Recklinghausen tumor

See: Recklinghausen, Friedrich D. von

sand tumor

Psammoma.

secondary tumor

A tumor that has formed at a location remote from the original location of the tumor. Generally, a secondary tumor results from the spread of malignant cells through the lymphatic system or bloodstream.

teratoid tumor

A tumor of embryonic remains from all germinal layers. See: teratoma

turban tumor

Multiple cutaneous cylindromata that cover the scalp like a turban.

uterine tumor

, tumor of the uterus
Uterine neoplasia, which may cause sterility or abortion or obstruct labor. Uterine tumors may become infected or twisted on their attachments. See: cancer of uterus; endometrioma; uterine fibroma

vascular tumor

Hemangioma.

Warthin tumor

See: Warthin tumor

Wilms tumor

See: Wilms tumor

Tumor

An abnormal growth of tissue resulting from uncontrolled, progressive multiplication of cells.

tumor

inflammatory oedema; see acute inflammation; inflammation

tu·mor

(tū'mŏr) Avoid the jargonistic use of this word as a synonym of neoplasm.
1. Any swelling or tumefaction.
2. One of the four signs of inflammation (the others are, calor, dolor, rubor) enunciated by Celsus.
Synonym(s): tumour.
[L. tumor, a swelling]

tumor,

n a swelling. Through usage the term is now synonymous with
neoplasm. See also neoplasm.
tumor, adenomatoid odontogenic (AOT)
n a benign tumor that develops from odontogenic epithelium and usually surrounds the crown of an impacted tooth; histologically, it is composed of ducts lined by cuboidal or columnar cells. Also known as
adenoameloblastoma and
ameloblastic adenomatoid tumor.
tumor, basaloid mixed,
tumor, Brooke's,
tumor, brown,
n a central giant cell tumor of the bone; associated with parathyroidism.
tumor, carotid body,
n a tumor formed about the carotid artery.
tumor, collision,
n a rare condition in which two neoplasms, both growing in the same general area, collide with the tumor elements and become intermingled.
tumor, Ewing's (endothelioma, Ewing's sarcoma),
tumor, giant cell,
n a benign neoplasm of bone, producing resorption and characterized by giant cells.
tumor, granular cell,
n a benign tumor of the oral soft tissue, most commonly the tongue. Usually of neural origin, these are characterized by the presence of large polygonal cells with a granular cytoplasm.
tumor, hormonal,
n localized enlargements of the gingivae that have the appearance of neoplasms and are associated with hormonal imbalance during pregnancy. Not a true tumor.
tumor, inflammatory,
n.pl a benign tissue growth made up of inflammatory cells; not a true tumor. The majority of oral growths fall into this category. See also granuloma, neoplasm.
tumor, keratocystic odontogenic,
tumor marker,
n substances that are often found in elevated levels in the bloodstream, urine, or other bodily tissues when cancer is present in the body.
tumor, mixed,
n 1. one of a group of neoplasms of the salivary glands the histologic appearance of which suggests both epithelial and connective tissue origin, although they presently are considered of epithelial origin only. Benign and malignant types are possible.
2. a tumor arising from cells derived from more than one germ layer.
Enlarge picture
Mixed tumor.
tumor, mucoepidermoid,
tumor, odontogenic
n a neoplasm produced from tooth-forming tissues (e.g., odontogenic fibroma, odontogenic myxoma, ameloblastoma). See also calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor.
tumor, turban,
tumor, Warthin's,

tumor

1. swelling, one of the cardinal signs of inflammation; morbid enlargement.
2. neoplasm; a new growth of tissue in which cell multiplication is uncontrolled and progressive. A cancer.
Tumors are called also cancers or neoplasms, which means that they are composed of new and actively growing tissue. Their growth is faster than that of normal tissue, continuing after cessation of the stimuli that evoked the growth, and serving no useful physiological purpose.
Tumors are classified in a number of ways, one of the simplest being according to their origin and whether they are malignant or benign. Tumors of mesenchymal origin include fibroelastic tumors and those of bone, fat, blood vessels and lymphoid tissue. They may be benign or malignant (sarcoma). Tumors of epithelial origin may be benign or malignant (carcinoma); they are found in glandular tissue or such organs as the mammary gland, stomach, uterus or skin. Mixed tumors contain different types of cells derived from the same primary germ layer, and teratomas contain cells derived from more than one germ layer; both kinds may be benign or malignant.

ACTH secreting tumor
benign tumor
grows slowly, pushing aside normal tissue but not invading it. They are usually encapsulated, well-demarcated growths. They are not metastatic; that is, they do not form secondary tumors in other organs. Benign tumors usually respond favorably to surgical treatment and some forms of radiation therapy.
tumor blush
in cerebral arteriography, the pooling of contrast material where the blood-brain barrier has been interrupted.
brown tumor
a giant-cell granuloma produced in and replacing bone, occurring in osteitis fibrosa cystica and due to hyperparathyroidism.
Burkitt's tumor
see burkitt's lymphoma.
button tumor
histiocytoma.
carotid body tumor
see carotid body tumors.
β cell tumor
tumor clinical staging
see staging (2).
connective tissue tumor
any tumor arising from a connective tissue structure, e.g. a fibroma or fibrosarcoma.
desmoid tumor
see desmoid (2).
tumor enhancement
see tumor enhancement.
erectile tumor
cavernous hemangioma.
false tumor
structural enlargement due to extravasation, exudation, echinococcus or retained sebaceous matter.
gastrin-secreting tumor
giant cell tumor
see giant cell tumor.
granulosa tumor, granulosa cell tumor
a sex chord-stromal tumor, often referred to as granulosa-theca cell tumor, of the ovary originating in the cells of the cumulus oophorus. See also granulosa cell tumor.
granulosa-theca cell tumor
an ovarian tumor composed of granulosa (follicular) cells and theca cells; either form may predominate. See also granulosa-theca cell tumor.
heterologous tumor
one made up of tissue differing from that in which it grows.
homoiotypic tumor, homologous tumor
one made up of tissue resembling that in which it grows.
Hürthle cell tumor
a new growth of the thyroid gland composed wholly or predominantly of Hürthle cells. See also hürthle cell tumor.
tumor immunology
see tumor-specific antigen.
tumor immunotherapy
islet cell tumor
a tumor of the islets of Langerhans, which may result in hyperinsulinism. See also insulinoma.
tumor lysis syndrome
a possible sequel to chemotherapy in which very rapid destruction of highly sensitive tumor cells results in release of large amounts of nucleic acid purines, lactate and uric acid which exceed renal and hepatic excretory mechanisms. Characterized by hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypocalcemia, hyperuricemia and renal failure.
malignant tumor
composed of embryonic, primitive, or poorly differentiated cells. They grow in a disorganized manner and so rapidly that nutrition of the cells becomes a problem. For this reason necrosis and ulceration are characteristic of malignant tumors. They also invade surrounding tissues and are metastatic, initiating the growth of similar tumors in distant organs. See also cancer.
mast cell tumor
a benign, but occasionally malignant, local aggregation of mast cells forming a nodulous tumor. Mast cell tumors with diffuse visceral involvement are called systemic mastocytosis. See also mast cell tumor.
mixed tumor
one composed of more than one type of neoplastic tissue, as in mammary tumors.
tumor necrosis factor (TNF)
two related cytokines produced by macrophages (TNF-α) and some T cells (TNF-β) that are cytotoxic for tumor cells but not for normal cells and which exert a variety of other inflammatory effects. See also lymphotoxin.
tumor-node-metastases (TNM) classification
see TNM staging.
non-neoplastic tumor
tumor (1).
organoid tumor
teratoma.
phantom tumor
abdominal or other swelling not due to structural change.
sand tumor
psammoma.
tumor-specific antigen (TSA)
see tumor-specific antigen.
true tumor
neoplasm.

Patient discussion about tumor

Q. What is a brain tumor?

A. A brain tumour is any intracranial tumor normally either in the brain itself in the cranial nerves, in the brain envelopes, skull, pituitary and pineal gland, or spread from cancers primarily located in other organs (metastatic tumors). It is created by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Primary (true) brain tumors (which start in the brain) are commonly located in the posterior cranial fossa in children and in the anterior two-thirds of the cerebral hemispheres in adults, although they can affect any part of the brain.

Q. Is this a tumor? I felt a lump in my breast a few days ago in the shower. Is this a Tumor? Help! I'm scared.

A. If you felt a lump in your breast then you should go see your Doctor to check whether or not it is something that could be dangerous.

Q. what is carcinoid tumors? I had my appendix removed and the doctor came in the room very shocked and said it was full of carcinoid tumors. Im scared to get them somewhere else.

A. ya I have pain all the time but the doctors wont give me anything cuz im so young they don't want me hooked on anything. thank you sooo much for being so kind.

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