granule cell

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Related to granule cell: Granular cell

granule cell

1. Any of the small neurons that pack the granular cell layer of the cerebellar cortex, immediately below the Purkinje cell layer. Granule cells receive inputs (mossy fibers) from the spinal cord and brainstem (except the inferior olive). Axons of granule cells run perpendicular to the Purkinje cell dendrites, on which they synapse.
2. Any of the neurons of the cerebral cortex that are not pyramidal cells. Cortical granule cells are categorized as spiny or nonspiny. Synonym: stellate cell
3. A small axon-less neuron found in the olfactory bulb.
See also: cell


1. a small particle or grain.
2. a small pill made of sucrose.

acidophil g's
granules staining with acid dyes.
aleuronoid g's
colorless myeloid colloidal bodies found in the base of pigment cells.
alpha g's
1. oval granules found in blood platelets; they are lysosomes containing acid phosphatase.
2. large granules in the alpha cells of the islets of Langerhans; they secrete glucagon.
3. acidophilic granules in the alpha cells of the adenohypophysis.
amphophil g's
granules that stain with both acid and basic dyes.
azur g's, azurophil g's
granules that stain easily with azure dyes; they are coarse, reddish granules and are seen in many lymphocytes.
basophil g's
granules staining with basic dyes.
beta g's
1. granules in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans that secrete insulin.
2. basophilic granules in the beta cells of the adenohypophysis.
granule cell
the largest group of cells produced by the external germinal layer on the external surface of the embryonal cerebellum; they form the thick granular layer of the cerebellum; called also granule neurons.
chromatic g's, chromophilic g's
see nissl bodies.
cone g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the cones.
eosinophil g's
those staining with eosin. See also alpha granules (above).
epsilon granule
see neutrophil granules (below).
Grawitz's g's
minute granules seen in the erythrocytes in the basophilia of lead poisoning.
iodophil g's
granules staining brown with iodine, seen in polymorphonuclear leukocytes in various acute infectious diseases.
keratohyalin granule
keratin precursor; in the stratum granulosum of the epithelium.
metachromatic g's
granules present in mast cells and many bacterial cells, having an avidity for basic dyes and causing irregular staining of the cell.
mitochondrial g's
organelles in osteoblasts through which temporary calcium ion sequestration can be effected.
granule neurons
see granule cell (above).
neutrophil g's
neutrophilic granules from the protoplasm of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; called also epsilon granules.
Nissl's g's
see nissl bodies.
oxyphil g's
acidophil granules.
pigment g's
small masses of coloring matter in pigment cells.
primary g's
the peroxidase-positive granules of neutrophils, most prominent in the progranulocyte and early myelocyte stages.
rod g's
the nuclei of the visual cells in the outer nuclear layer of the retina which are connected with the rods.
secondary g's
the peroxidase-negative ('specific') granules seen in mature neutrophils.
seminal g's
the small granular bodies in the semen.
sulfur g's
see sulfur granule.
toxic g's
dark-staining granules in neutrophils that contain peroxidase and acid hydrolases. They occur in inflammatory reactions.
References in periodicals archive ?
OBSERVATION: Each granule cell was spherical in shape with a prominent nucleus.
1996) and to alter the inward and vertical migration of granule cells through the developing molecular and Purkinje cell layers of the neonatal cerebellum (Ferguson et al.
These include cortical interneurons in the IZ/SVZ, (8) cerebellar granule cells in the external granule layer (9) and precerebellar neurons such as PN neurons, (10) neurons of the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN) (11) and facial motor neurons in the hindbrain.
The result of this study indicates that exposure of rats to noise stress during third week of postnatal life significantly decreases both neuronal number in the granule cells and somal volume of purkinje cells in the cerebellum.
1990) Depression and potentiation of the synaptic transmission between a granule cell and a Purkinje cell in rat cerebellar culture.
Granule cell neurogenesis continues through adulthood, declining with age in rats and in humans (Altman and Das 1965; Gage 2000).
The scientists studied genetically modified mice lacking NMDA receptors in dentate gyrus granule cells and pyramid cells in the CA1 region.
Results showed that granule cells were much more sensitive to the genotoxicants than astrocytes.
In the present study, we examined the protective effects of KBG and its constituent medicinal plants against NO donors, sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 2,2'-(hydroxynitrosohydrazino)bis-ethanamine (NOC18)-induced neuronal death in cultured rat cerebellar granule cells (CGCs).
In the dentate gyrus, new granule cells develop from progenitor cells in the subgranular region (Crespo et al.