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mal[mal] (Fr. and Sp.)
gen·er·al·ized ton·ic-clo·nic sei·zure
grand mal(grahn mal) [Fr.] see under epilepsy.
gen·er·al·ized ton·ic-clo·nic sei·zure, generalized tonic-clonic epilepsy (jen'ĕr-ă-līzd ton'ik-klon'ik sē'zhŭr, ep'i-lep'sē)
Synonym(s): grand mal.
grand malA major epileptic seizure. The fit may include a prodromal stage, an AURA, a tonic stage with sudden contraction of all muscles, a clonic stage in which the muscles undergo a succession of convulsive jerky contractions, and a period of unconsciousness or sleep.
epilepsychronic neurological disorder characterized by variable episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction (i.e. a fit), altered levels of consciousness and excessive neuronal discharge and/or convulsions followed by a period of sleepiness; fits are controlled by antiepileptic drugs, e.g. carbamazepine (Tegretol), gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Epanutin), pregabalin (Lyrica), sodium valproate (Epilim); local anaesthetic drugs within the systemic circulation agonize antiepileptic medications
focal epilepsy; cortical epilepsy seizure often preceded by a specific sensory phenomenon (aura), and characterized by isolated disturbance of cerebral function, e.g. uncontrollable twitching of one limb, and followed by some degree of subsequent temporary mental dysfunction
generalized epilepsy; grand mal epilepsy a classic epileptic seizure often preceded by a brief, specific sensory phenomenon (aura), and characterized by a sudden loss of consciousness, cyanosis and tonic muscular spasm (lasting approximately 30 seconds), followed by repetitive clonic body jerking, (lasting for a few minutes), with frothing at the mouth and urinary incontinence after which the patient remains unconscious or semiconscious and flaccid for several minutes; the patient may remain drowsy or confused for some time after the seizure has passed
petit mal epilepsy characterized by short period of 'absence', during which the patient does not become unconscious or suffer muscular spasms but is temporarily non-reactive to and unaware of his or her surroundings or actions
temporal-lobe epilepsy; psychomotor epilepsy attacks characterized by impaired consciousness and amnesia, clonic limb movements, hallucinations or other psychic disturbances
tonic epilepsy seizure characterized by tonic convulsions and rigidity