graft-versus-tumor

graft-versus-tumor

Immunology An immune response to a graft recipient's tumor cells by a donor's transplanted immune cells in the BM or peripheral blood. See Graft-versus-host disease.
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When these immune system cells found in the bone marrow are transplanted from a healthy donor to a cancer patient, donor cells may recognize the cancer cells in the recipient's body and attack them, a desirable phenomenon known as the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect.
In addition to the lower doses of chemotherapy and radiation the researchers attribute the positive responses to what is known as a graft-versus-tumor effect, a reaction where the donor T-cells fight and eradicate the host cells as well as the use of post-engraftment immunosuppression to control graft rejections and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD).
The study suggests the researchers turned the graft-versus-host reaction to some patients' advantage, making it a graft-versus-tumor response.
The results obtained in this study, in conjunction with the experience using CD44 as a prognostic marker in the serum of patients with solid tumors or hematologic malignancies, suggest that the measurement of CD44 in the grafts of patients undergoing autoHSCT could be helpful in guiding decisions about further treatment strategies such as additional conditioning chemotherapy; allogeneic HSCT, where a graft-versus-tumor effect also comes into play; ex vivo purging strategies of the graft material; or CD44 blocking methods should they be shown to be effective.
Patients with rapidly advancing metastatic disease, who would be unlikely to live long enough for the generation of a graft-versus-tumor effect, would not benefit from such therapy.
Additionally, as bone marrow transplantation is frequently used to cure cancer, mainly leukamias, donor T-cells have proven to have a valuable graft-versus-tumor effect.