Furthermore, our previous study revealed no alteration in the volumeof ovary,unilaminarprimary follicles, multilaminar primary follicles, secondary follicles, and graafian
follicles in the experimental groups (9).
Administration of nicotine in adult female rats has resulted in the increase in the number of atretic follicles in the ovary, irregularities in the estrous cycle, impaired ovulation, altered steroid hormone concentration, decrease in the number and size of Graafian follicles and corpora lutea (1, 3).
Follicles were classified based on their morphological characteristics as: primordial, primary, secondary and Graafian follicles.
Graafian (antral follicles): They were identified by the presence of a large antral cavity filled with secretory fluid (19-21), (Figure 1).
Visibly, administration of nicotine for 15 days caused a significant decrease in the number of secondary and Graafian follicles (p < 0.
Co-administration of nicotine and melatonin significantly increased number of secondary and Graafian follicles and corpus luteum in compareson with the nicotine only treated mice (Table 1).
Therefore, through this probable mechanism and by nAChR-2, nicotine can have adverse effects mostly on growing or Graafian follicles (14).
Grossly observable Graafian follicles were counted and their diameter was measured using Vernier Calipers.
However, the shape of the ovary was greatly changed due to the presence of Graafian follicles or the corpora lutea.
However, for the right ovary, mean numbers of active Graafian follicles was significantly (p<0.
Among 92 camels, four had plain ovaries without any Graafian follicles, while 18 had follicles of 5 mm or less in diameter and were considered as inactive.