gonadotrophins


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Related to gonadotrophins: Gonadotropins

gonadotrophins

hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary, under the influence of the hypothalamus, which control the development and secretory function of the ovaries and testes. In pregnancy, ovarian function is under the influence of the placental secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG), which also acts on the fetal testis. See also hormones; Table 1.
Table 1: Hormones
Site of productionName of hormoneMain targetsInvolved in regulating:Secretion controlled by:
HypothalamusReleasing and inhibiting hormonesAnterior pituitary (via local blood vessels)Secretion of anterior pituitary hormonesOther brain regions; feedback re regulated hormones and their actions
Neurohormones released from posterior pituitary:
OxytocinUterus, breastsLabour and lactationAfferent information from target organs
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)KidneysWater loss: ECF volume and osmolalityHypothalamic osmoreceptors
Anterior pituitary(Human) growth hormone (H)GHMost cellsGrowth and metabolismHypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones via local blood vessels
ProlactinBreastsMilk production
Trophic hormones:
Thyroid-stimulating (TSH)Thyroid glandThyroid secretions
GonadotrophinsOvary or testisGerm cell maturation and hormone secretions
Adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH)Adrenal cortexCortisol secretion
Pineal bodyMelatoninWidespread, including brain, thymus, etc.
  • Sleep/wake cycle
  • Antioxidant
  • Immune system
Hypothalamus; varying light input from retina
Thyroid
  • Thyroxine
  • Triiodothyronine
  • Calcitonin
  • Most cells
  • Bone, kidneys, gut
  • Cellular oxidative metabolism
  • Decreases ECF [Ca2+]
  • TSH from anterior pituitary. Negative feedback from blood hormone concentration
  • ECF [Ca2+]
ParathyroidsParathormoneBone, kidneys, gut
  • Calcium and phosphorus absorption, secretion and turnover in bone.
  • Increases ECF [Ca2+]
ECF [Ca2+]
Adrenal: Cortex
  • Cortisol
  • Aldosterone
  • Androgens
  • Most cells
  • Kidneys
  • Gonads & other tissues
  • Metabolism
  • Response to stress
  • Na and K balance
  • Sex characteristics and reproductive function
  • ACTH from anterior pituitary
  • ECF [Na+] [K+]
  • Renin-angiotensin
  • ACTH
Medulla
  • Adrenaline
  • Noradrenaline
Heart, smooth muscle, glandsCardiovascular and metabolic adjustments to activity and stressSympathetic nervous system
Atrial wallAtrial natriuretic hormoneKidneysBlood volume; increases sodium (therefore also water) loss in urineStretch of atrial wall by venous pressure
Gonads: TestisAndrogens (mainly testosterone)Genitalia and other tissuesReproductive function and sex characteristicsAnterior pituitary gonadotrophins
Ovary
  • Oestrogens
  • Progesterone
Uterus, breasts and other tissuesMenstrual cycle, pregnancy, lactation
Pancreas
  • Insulin, glucagon
  • Somatostatin
  • Most cells
  • Other secretory cells in the pancreas
Blood levels, storage and cellular uptake of nutrients, notably glucose, but also proteins and fatsBlood levels of nutrients; autonomic nervous system; other gastrointesinal hormones
Alimentary tract
StomachGastrinGastric acid-secreting cellsGastrointestinal functions: motility, digestive juices and other secretionsLocal chemical and mechanical factors in the alimentary tract
Small intestine
  • Secretin
  • Cholecystokinin- pancreozymin (CCK-PZ)
  • Somatostatin, motilin
  • Other peptide hormones including vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
  • Widespread on
  • GI tract
Several GI functions including bile flow, pancreatic enzyme and exocrine secretionsIngestion of food, distension of GI tract
References in periodicals archive ?
It has been showed that the carbamate insecticide carbaryl has affected spermatogenic cells and caused leydig cells degeneration and altered serum testosterone and gonadotrophin levels [43].
Thus, the dosage of gonadotrophin might be a cause of variation in superovulation response.
This was associated with a rise in FSH and LH levels suggesting the LHRH analogues had stimulated further production of gonadotrophins and thus the normal process of down-regulation had not occurred.
Among patients treated for IVF with gonadotrophins and GnRH analogues, is the probability of live birth dependent on the type of analogue used?
It was here that he showed his true genius and, in conjunction with his colleagues at the Royal Women's Hospital, he revolutionised the use of gonadotrophins for the safe induction of ovulation.
Failure to respond to clomiphene citrate occurs in up to 20% of cases which may require the use of injectable gonadotrophins as a second-line treatment.
The results of a new method of receiving gonadotrophins from PMS are based on methods settling of ballast proteins and gonadotrophins, determination of its hormonal activity, a ratio of follicle stimulating and luteinizing hormones in a preparation, differing by that as producers of PMSG are selected 3-5 yearold donor mares with term of a pregnancy 65-85 days, 6-8 year donor mares with term of pregnancy of 60-75 days and 910 year old donors with term of 55-65 days.
With the availability of recombinant gonadotrophins, pregnancy has been achieved with newer treatment protocols, but the information about its outcome is scant (4).
The first endocrine event in response to a course of clomiphene therapy is an increase in the release of pituitary gonadotrophins followed by an increase in thrombogenic oestradiol.