Increased global trade of live fish increases the risk that gnathostomes
and other fish-borne parasites will be introduced into regions along with their introduced hosts.
Thus, it is likely that these genes have been co-opted to an earlier function in the gnathostome
lineage or have lost their early specification function in lampreys.
2004), and antibody-mediated immunity (Klein and Nikolaidis, 2005), preexisting pieces were connected into the myelination process by gnathostome
Furthermore, the analysis demonstrated that all of these early members of the modern gnathostomes
are clearly separated from what now appear to be the most primitive vertebrates with jaws: a collection of armored fishes called placoderms.
After some gnathostomes
emerged from the sea to dwell on land, the gill arches that did not form the jaw developed to form the tongue, the thyroid cartilage, the cricoid cartilage, and the structures of the pharynx and hypopharynx.
Whatever their dental details, the Ordovician sharks apparently shared the ancient oceans with true gnathostomes
microRNAs reveal the interrelationships of hagfish, lampreys, and gnathostomes
and the nature of the ancestral vertebrate.
His major research area is foodborne zoonotic parasites, including echinostomes, heterophyids, and gnathostomes
In 1975 a palaeontological expedition from Gottingen and Cologne universities (Germany) visited Arctic Canada (Langenstrassen & Schultze 1996) and inter alia collected agnathans and gnathostomes
in Lower Devonian localities on the northern part of Prince of Wales Island (Fig.