These SGPs were named as glycophorins (Furthmayr et al.
Rat erythrocyte glycophorins can be isolated by the lithium diiodosalicylate method used for other glycophorins.
For decades, it has been known that malaria parasites use proteins called glycophorins as a means of entering red blood cells.
The pathway does not involve glycophorins, instead requiring the binding of a parasite molecule named PfRh4 to Complement Receptor 1 (CR1), a common protein found on the surface of red blood cells.
Similarly, they cause the rupture of glycophorins from the erythrocytic surface, easing the activation of the complement and hemolysis .
Loxosceles intermedia spider envenomation induces activa tion o fan endogenous metalloproteinase, reulting in cleavage of glycophorins from the erythrocyte surface and facilitating complement-mediated lysis.
For many years it has been known that proteins called glycophorins are used by the parasite to gain entry into the red cell," said Jose A.
Because infection can take place without glycophorins, researchers suspected that another protein is also involved.
Our findings suggest that for many malaria strains, CR1 is an alternative receptor to glycophorins on intact red cells," Stoute said.
According to the researchers, the reasons malaria may use the CR1 protein instead of glycophorins are if the parasite encounters a variant that lacks the glycophorin receptor; if the immune system mounts a response against parasite proteins involved in the dominant pathway due to a previous infection; or if the host were to be vaccinated with a vaccine that blocks the glycophorin pathway.