glutamine


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glutamine

 [gloo´tah-min]
an amide of glutamic acid, one of the nonessential amino acids; it is an important carrier of urinary ammonia and is broken down in the kidney by the enzyme glutaminase.

glu·ta·mine (Gln, Q),

(glū'tă-mēn, -tă-min, glū-tam'in),
The δ-amide of glutamic acid, derived by oxidation from proline in the liver or by the combination of glutamic acid with ammonia; the l-isomer is present in proteins, blood, and other tissues, and is an important source of urinary ammonia, being broken down in the kidney by the action of the enzyme glutaminase; nonenzymatically, it is converted to 5-oxoproline.

glutamine

/glu·ta·mine/ (glldbomact´ah-mēn) the monoamide of glutamic acid, a nonessential amino acid occurring in proteins; it is an important carrier of urinary ammonia and is broken down in the kidney by the enzyme glutaminase. Symbols Gln and Q.

glutamine

(glo͞o′tə-mēn′)
n.
A nonessential amino acid, C5H10N2O3, occurring widely in plant and animal tissue and proteins and produced commercially for use in medicine and biochemical research.

glutamine (Gln)

[glo̅o̅′təmēn]
Etymology: L, gluten + amine, ammonia
a nonessential amino acid found in the juices of many plants and in many proteins in the body. It functions as an amino donor for many reactions. It is also a nontoxic transport for ammonia because it is readily hydrolyzed to glutamic acid and free ammonia, the latter excreted in the urine. See also amino acid, protein.
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Chemical structure of glutamine

glu·ta·mine

(Gln) (glū'tă-mēn)
The δ-amide of glutamic acid, derived by oxidation from proline in the liver or by the combination of glutamic acid with ammonia; the l-isomer is present in proteins and in blood and other tissues, and is an important source of urinary ammonia.
Glutamineclick for a larger image
Fig. 173 Glutamine . Molecular structure.

glutamine (Q, Gln)

one of 20 AMINO ACIDS common in proteins that has a polar ‘R’ structure and is soluble in water.

glutamine

the amide of amino acid glutamate, synthesized in skeletal muscle. Glutamine is one of the major fuels of the gut lining, and of the cells of the immune system. It is also a precursor for the gluconeogenesis that occurs in the kidneys after an overnight fast or in starvation. Glutamine supplementation is popular among athletes attempting to maintain a healthy immune system during training. See also glucogenic amino acids, ergogenic aids; appendix 4.4 .

glutamine (glōōˑ·t·mēn),

n an amino acid synthesized within the body from glutamic acid. Used in preventing immunosuppression after exercise and as an aid in recovery after a critical illness. Precaution urged for those sensitive to monosodium glutamate, those who suffer from manic conditions, and patients who are taking anticonvulsants. Also called
L-glutamine.
Enlarge picture
Glutamine.

glutamine

Gln; an amide of glutamic acid, an amino acid occurring in proteins; it is an important carrier of ammonia to the kidney where it is released by glutaminase.

glutamine synthetase
enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of the amino acid, glutamine from glutamate ammonia and ATP. Major means of detoxifying ammonia from amino acid catabolism in peripheral tissues and then transporting the ammonia as the amido-N in glutamine to the liver of kidney.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mutational screening of GJA8 gene showed substitution of glutamic acid to glutamine at codon position 368 in the coding region of GJA8 exon 2, which is a novel mutation.
For, when the patient reports to us that the first morning urine pH is in the acid range, not only can we suspect electrolyte imbalances in general and potassium and magnesium need specifically, we can also safely postulate that the patient may require glutamine supplementation or a protein supplement such as whey powder that contains significant amounts of glutamine.
The effect of supplemental glutamine on growth performance, development of the gastrointestinal tract, and humoral immune response of broilers.
The results of our research showed that the increase of nitrogen fertilizers dose did not lead to the increase of activity of glutamine synthetase.
15 It is well-documented that glutamine can improve metabolism and immune function, affect intestinal function and enhance stress response.
Utility of an immunohistochemical panel consisting of glypican-3, heat-shock protein-70, and glutamine synthetase in the distinction of low-grade hepatocellular carcinoma from hepatocellular adenoma.
Instead of the "messy, sticky solution," they came up with Healios, a powder of glutamine and sugars that can be mixed with water.
Foods high in glutamine include cabbage, beef, chicken, fish and beans.

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