glutamic acid decarboxylase


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Related to glutamic acid decarboxylase: Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibody, GAD65

glutamic acid decarboxylase

Abbreviation: GAD
An enzyme (molecular mass 65 kD) that is found in the brain and the islet cells of the pancreas and participates in the synthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Antibodies to GAD are found in the blood of patients with diabetes mellitus, type, and stiff-person syndrome.
See also: decarboxylase
References in periodicals archive ?
The clinical significance of an autoimmune response against glutamic acid decarboxylase.
UKPDS 25: autoantibodies to islet-cell cytoplasm and glutamic acid decarboxylase for prediction of insulin requirement in type 2 diabetes.
Glutamic acid decarboxylase in Parkinson's disease and epilepsy.
Diabetes Antibody Standardization Program: evaluation of assays for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and islet antigen-2.
Islet cell antibodies and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies but not the clinical phenotype help to identify type 1V2 diabetes in patients presenting with type 2 diabetes.
Titre and combination of ICA and autoanti-bodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase discriminate two clinically distinct types of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).
In 41 infants who had a parent or sibling with type 1 diabetes, significant increases in rotavirus antibodies coincided with the first appearance of insulin autoantibodies in 19 of 23, with antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in 14 of 20, and with IA-2 antibodies in 14 of 21 at-risk infants.
It now seems that the appearance of autoantibodies to beta-cell antigens, such as those against the 65-kDA isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) [7] and the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like insulinoma associated protein 2 (IA-2) in the peripheral circulation is a predictive sign of clinical disease.
Initially, diabetes-associated autoantibodies were detected by immunofluorescence staining of pancreatic islets, but several autoantibodies can now be detected at the molecular level in serum samples, the most important autoantigens being the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65), protein tyrosine phosphatase-like protein (IA-2), and insulin (4).
The loss of [beta] cells is associated with multiple immunopathologic phenomena, best reflected by the appearance of autoantibodies to one or more of the following islet autoantigens: the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), an insulinoma antigen-2 (IA-2 or ICA512), or insulin itself (8).

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