glutamate decarboxylase

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glu·ta·mate de·car·box·yl·ase (GAD),

a carboxy-lyase converting l-glutamate to 4-aminobutyrate and CO2 as well as l-aspartate to 3-aminopropanoate and CO2; a defect in the binding of this protein's coenzyme is believed to cause pyridoxine dependency with seizures.


An intronless gene on chromosome 1q31 that encodes a glutamine synthetase, which catalyses the synthesis of glutamine from glutamate and ammonia. Glutamine is a key source of energy and is involved in cell proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and cell signalling. GLUL is expressed during early foetal stages, and plays an important role in controlling pH by removing ammonia from circulation.

Molecular pathology
GLUL mutations are associated with congenital glutamine deficiency.
References in periodicals archive ?
Producing alkaline GABA and cadaverine, both glutamate decarboxylase and lysine decarboxylase enzymes have strategic role in neutralizing acidic condition.
Lab analysis of metagenomic DNA sequencing data allowed us to demonstrate that microbial glutamate decarboxylase encoding gene is very abundant in intestinal microbiota as compared to other body sites," Pokusaeva said.
Cell origin was confirmed by the presence of mRNA transcripts for: calcium/calm odulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CamK-II) for excitatory pyramidal cells, glutamate decarboxylase (GAD65) for inhibitory interneurons and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) for astrocytic cells (see Figure).
GABA is synthesized in a reaction catalyzed by the calmodulin modulated enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) that is activated, in part, by stress-induced increases in [Ca.
Sex steroid regulation of glutamate decarboxylase mRNA expression in goldfish brain is sexually dimorphic.
Two islet autoantibody specificities definitely represent major subfractions of ICAs: antibodies to the 65-kDa isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65-abs) (7, 8) the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid-synthesizing isoform of glutamate decarboxylase in human islets (9), and antibodies to islet antigen-2 (IA2-abs) (10), a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed in islet cells that has been described as a membrane protein composed of 979 amino acids (11).
When the mice reached about 4 weeks of age, both terms observed that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) began activating T-cells.
Glutamate Decarboxylase Genes as a Prescreening Marker for Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli Groups.
One Chinese study found that activity of the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase increased by 30% in magnetized water (MW).
Presynaptic inhibition of cerebellar GABAergic transmission by glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies in progressive cerebellar ataxia.
Immunohistochemical localization of glutamate decarboxylase in the rat oviduct and ovary: further evidence for non-neural GABA systems.

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