glutamate


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Related to glutamate: glutamine, monosodium glutamate, Glutamate decarboxylase, glutamate synthase, Glutamate excitotoxicity

glutamate

 [gloo´tah-māt]
a salt of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glu·ta·mate

(glū'tă-māt),
A salt or ester of glutamic acid.

glutamate

/glu·ta·mate/ (gloo´tah-māt) a salt of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glutamate

(glo͞o′tə-māt′)
n.
A salt or ester of glutamic acid, especially one that functions as a neurotransmitter that excites cells of the central nervous system.

glutamate

[glo̅o̅′təmāt]
a salt of glutamic acid. In addition to being one of the 20 major amino acids incorporated into the peptide chains of proteins, it is a major excitatory amino acid of the central nervous system.

glu·ta·mate

(glū'tă-māt)
A salt or ester of glutamic acid.

glutamate

A negatively-charged ion derived from GLUTAMIC ACID and an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate can be used as a marker of progression in stroke; concentrations of glutamate are higher in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive stroke than in those with stable cerebral infarcts. Glutamate, which is produced by neurons deprived of oxygen, prompts the production of highly reactive free radicals that can kill brain cells. There is some evidence that cannabinoids from marijuana can protect against this damage by donating electrons in the manner of the antioxidant vitamins C and E.

glutamate

the dissociated form of the amino acid GLUTAMIC ACID.

glutamate (glōōˑ·t·māt),

n an excitatory neurotransmitter found in the central nervous system of mammals and used as a flavor enhancer in its sodium salt form, monosodium glutamate (MSG). Controversy surrounds MSG and glutamate because of its role in MSG symptom complex (also known as the
Chinese restaurant syndrome) and its deleterious effects as a potential excitotoxin.

cone pedicle 

The wide synaptic terminal of a cone photoreceptor located in the outer molecular (outer plexiform) layer of the retina. There are deep pits (invaginations) in the base of the terminal that contain the dendrites of bipolar and horizontal cells, often two of the former and one of the latter, in each invagination. The neurotransmitter is glutamate, which is stored in vesicles contained in the terminals, and when the photoreceptors are stimulated by light the release of glutamate is decreased. See cone cell; hyperpolarization; neuro-transmitter.

neurotransmitter

A substance stored in the synaptic vesicles that is released when the axon terminal is excited by a nervous impulse. The substance then travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit another neuron. This is accomplished by either decreasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (excitation), or increasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (inhibition). Common neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, adrenaline (epinephrine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids, such as glutamate and glycine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin and substance P. Common neurotransmitters in the retina are glutamate (the primary excitatory neurotransmitter), GABA (inhibitory), glycine (inhibitory), dopamine (excitatory) and acetylcholine (excitatory). See neuron; synapse.

rod spherule 

The onion-shaped synaptic terminal of a rod photoreceptor located in the outer molecular (plexiform) layer of the retina. There is a deep pit (invagination) in the base of the terminal, which contains the dendrites of bipolar and horizontal cells, often two of each. The neurotransmitter is glutamate, which is stored in vesicles contained in the terminal, and when the photoreceptors are stimulated by light the release of glutamate is decreased. See rod cell; hyperpolarization; neuro-transmitter.

glutamate

Glu; the anionic form of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glutamate dehydrogenase (GD)
see glutamate dehydrogenase.
References in periodicals archive ?
mGluR1 and mGluR5 belong to the group one of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs).
The archaeal pyruvate and alpha ketoglutarate generated by the action of GDH on glutamate can suppress NFKB producing immunosuppression and decrease in cytokine secretion.
For now, scientists continue to examine the roles of hypocretin, GABA, and glutamate in sleep and wakefulness.
Because the injections only blocked glutamate or dopamine in tiny bits of the nucleus accumbens, the researchers were able to map out a millimeter-by-millimeter gradient of reactions over the region.
The role and metabolism of glutamate is very well understood.
Processed meats, soups, bouillons, salty snacks, croutons, gravies and ready-to-eat meals are especially high in monosodium glutamate.
Ripe tomatoes, Parmesan cheese, scallops and mushrooms and yeast extract are high in natural glutamate, and our bodies produce 50g of it every day, to aid our metabolism.
The Co-op has replaced the colourings and monosodium glutamate in its own-brand products with natural alternatives.
said Wednesday its new factory in Thailand has begun producing nucleotide seasonings, used to add flavor to monosodium glutamate.
For example, the amino acid glutamate doesn't just make your cheese taste good; it also functions in your brain to help you taste the cheese.
Furthermore, neuronal depolarization leads to an accumulation of extracellular glutamate (a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and inner ear).
Elevated liver enzymes (glutamate oxalacetic transaminase 155 U/L, glutamate pyruvate transaminase 379 U/L) were found, along with elevated lactate dehydrogenase 911 U/L (normal 130-290 U/L) and C-reactive protein 4.