glutamate


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glutamate

 [gloo´tah-māt]
a salt of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glu·ta·mate

(glū'tă-māt),
A salt or ester of glutamic acid.

glutamate

/glu·ta·mate/ (gloo´tah-māt) a salt of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glutamate

(glo͞o′tə-māt′)
n.
A salt or ester of glutamic acid, especially one that functions as a neurotransmitter that excites cells of the central nervous system.

glutamate

[glo̅o̅′təmāt]
a salt of glutamic acid. In addition to being one of the 20 major amino acids incorporated into the peptide chains of proteins, it is a major excitatory amino acid of the central nervous system.

glu·ta·mate

(glū'tă-māt)
A salt or ester of glutamic acid.

glutamate

A negatively-charged ion derived from GLUTAMIC ACID and an important excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Glutamate can be used as a marker of progression in stroke; concentrations of glutamate are higher in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with progressive stroke than in those with stable cerebral infarcts. Glutamate, which is produced by neurons deprived of oxygen, prompts the production of highly reactive free radicals that can kill brain cells. There is some evidence that cannabinoids from marijuana can protect against this damage by donating electrons in the manner of the antioxidant vitamins C and E.

glutamate

the dissociated form of the amino acid GLUTAMIC ACID.

glutamate (glōōˑ·t·māt),

n an excitatory neurotransmitter found in the central nervous system of mammals and used as a flavor enhancer in its sodium salt form, monosodium glutamate (MSG). Controversy surrounds MSG and glutamate because of its role in MSG symptom complex (also known as the
Chinese restaurant syndrome) and its deleterious effects as a potential excitotoxin.

cone pedicle 

The wide synaptic terminal of a cone photoreceptor located in the outer molecular (outer plexiform) layer of the retina. There are deep pits (invaginations) in the base of the terminal that contain the dendrites of bipolar and horizontal cells, often two of the former and one of the latter, in each invagination. The neurotransmitter is glutamate, which is stored in vesicles contained in the terminals, and when the photoreceptors are stimulated by light the release of glutamate is decreased. See cone cell; hyperpolarization; neuro-transmitter.

neurotransmitter

A substance stored in the synaptic vesicles that is released when the axon terminal is excited by a nervous impulse. The substance then travels across the synaptic cleft to either excite or inhibit another neuron. This is accomplished by either decreasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (excitation), or increasing the negativity of postsynaptic potentials (inhibition). Common neurotransmitters include acetylcholine, dopamine, endorphins, adrenaline (epinephrine), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), amino acids, such as glutamate and glycine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin and substance P. Common neurotransmitters in the retina are glutamate (the primary excitatory neurotransmitter), GABA (inhibitory), glycine (inhibitory), dopamine (excitatory) and acetylcholine (excitatory). See neuron; synapse.

rod spherule 

The onion-shaped synaptic terminal of a rod photoreceptor located in the outer molecular (plexiform) layer of the retina. There is a deep pit (invagination) in the base of the terminal, which contains the dendrites of bipolar and horizontal cells, often two of each. The neurotransmitter is glutamate, which is stored in vesicles contained in the terminal, and when the photoreceptors are stimulated by light the release of glutamate is decreased. See rod cell; hyperpolarization; neuro-transmitter.

glutamate

Glu; the anionic form of glutamic acid; in biochemistry, the term is often used interchangeably with glutamic acid.

glutamate dehydrogenase (GD)
see glutamate dehydrogenase.
References in periodicals archive ?
Garattini (1970), "Monosodium Glutamate and the Chinese Restaurant Syndrome," Nature, 227:611-12.
Glutamate is an amino acid that is found throughout the human body.
Glutamate is found in all protein-containing foods, but only enhances flavors when it appears in its "free" form, not bound together with other amino acids in protein.
Glutamate is also a naturally occurring chemical in some foods, like soy sauce and parmesan cheese, but is more commonly found as a food additive.
Excessive glutamate stimulation of brain cells (excitotoxicity) is a factor in development of long-term neurodegenerative disorders, stroke, and schizophrenia.
In another experiment, the hippocampus was perfused with ACSF for 25 min to determine the basal concentrations of glutamate in the extracellular fluid; then perfused with 1 mmol [1.
One of the most used food additive is monosodium glutamate which is deeply involved in everyday life.
A key component of the glutamatergic system that is responsible for removing excess glutamate from the synapse is membrane-bound transporters, which are similar to serotonin and norepinephrine transporters.
A reward pathway in the dorsal raphe nucleus important to drug abuse begins with stimulation of glutamate neurons, according to a study from the National Institutes of Health.
Memantine slows down dementia by reducing the amount of a brain chemical called glutamate.
Glutamate is a principal excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter, which is a messenger molecule that is released when nerve cells pass signals to each other and to their target organ.
SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY APPROACH FOR DEVELOPMENT OF A MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE DETECTOR.