Thus, exercise may be detrimental to T2D patients with E--cell glucotoxicity
The data indicated that paeoniflorin could block glucotoxicity
in biological cells or tissues.
In our study, decreasing total proinsulin + insulin level indicated insulin secretion defect and support the glucotoxicity
and lipotoxicity phenomenon in type 2 DM (Dimitrova and Georgiev 2007).
Excessive glucose impairs insulin secretion and survival of pancreatic [beta] cells due to glucotoxicity
, in which oxidative stress plays an important role.
It is important to note that exogenous insulin itself addresses both of the defects in Type 2 diabetes by improving endogenous insulin secretion (corrects insulin deficiency) and decreasing glucotoxicity
and therefore decreasing insulin resistance.
This hypothalamic alteration potentiates increases in circulating glucose, free fatty acids, and triglycerides that, in turn, contribute to insulin resistance in the liver and muscle and beta-cell dysfunction via lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity
and/or lipotoxicity may cause oxidative (free radical) damage to beta cells genes and to synthesis and secretion pathways (figure 3).
1c] level has been reported to be associated with unprovoked ketoacidosis, and the suggested mechanism is glucotoxicity
to the beta cell.
Until transplanted islets have full function, we prefer to use insulin injection to protect islets from glucotoxicity
In these patients it has been reported that insulin treatment at an early stage improves the glucotoxicity
and secretory defect, and usually prevents the recurrence of ketoacidosis (2).
Both lipo- and glucotoxicity
are proposed to induce [beta]-cell failure while the natural history of type 2 diabetes is that [beta]-cell function gradually deteriorates.
Experimental evidence from animal studies suggests that lipotoxicity and glucotoxicity
reduce pancreatic [beta]-cell mass (22), a process mediated at least in part by uncompensated ER stress in [beta]-cells leading to apoptosis, further contributing to abnormal glucose-insulin homeostasis.