T2DM is associated with insulin secretion disorder of [beta] cells and insulin resistance, which is defined as the deterioration of normal biological response to exogenous and endogenous insulin, and many resultants can be regarded, such as genetic factors, cellular receptor mechanism, low birth weight, obesity, lifestyle, glucotoxicity
, lipotoxicity, islet amyloid, adiposyte products, and inflammation (6).
Glucose-induced [beta] cell production of IL-1 b contributes to glucotoxicity
in human pancreatic islets.
Protein Modifications as Manifestations of Hyperglycemic Glucotoxicity
in Diabetes and Its Complications.
2 In type 2 diabetes mellitus, deranged glycaemic control induces glucotoxicity
and lypotoxicity exposing the cellular environment to free fatty acid surge which drives beta cell apoptosis and insulin resistance.
Thus, metabolically utilizing ("burning") oxygen and sugar for efficient production of energy comes at a potentially high metabolic price: free radical toxicity and protein glycation or glucotoxicity
The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin improves diabetes-induced vascular dysfunction in the streptozotocin diabetes rat model by interfering with oxidative stress and glucotoxicity
," PLoS ONE, vol.
Reasons for the increasing of lipid profile may be associated with the mechanism of glucotoxicity
improvement or different percentage of usage of lipid lowering therapy between groups, or other reasons we still no know.
Thus, exercise may be detrimental to T2D patients with E--cell glucotoxicity
2]S led to the identification of protective effects from ischemic insults in the heart and kidney and from high-fat diet-induced glucotoxicity
in pancreatic O cells.
The data indicated that paeoniflorin could block glucotoxicity
in biological cells or tissues.
In our study, decreasing total proinsulin + insulin level indicated insulin secretion defect and support the glucotoxicity
and lipotoxicity phenomenon in type 2 DM (Dimitrova and Georgiev 2007).
and lipotoxicity are culprit of oxidative stress in diabetic patients.